Some cool stamping parts china pictures:
Image by Hoa Trai Viet Nam
Hoa Hồng Rosa Rosaceae
Hồng hay hường là tên gọi chung cho các loài thực vật có hoa dạng cây bụi hoặc cây leo lâu năm thuộc chi Rosa, họ Rosaceae, với hơn 100 loài với màu hoa đa dạng, phân bố từ miền ôn đới đến nhiệt đới. Các loài này nổi tiếng vì hoa đẹp nên thường gọi là hoa hồng. Đa phần có nguồn gốc bản địa châu Á, số ít còn lại có nguồn gốc bản địa châu Âu, Bắc Mỹ, và Tây Bắc Phi. Các loài bản địa, giống cây trồng và cây lai ghép đều được trồng làm cảnh và lấy hương thơm.. Đôi khi các loài này được gọi theo tiếng Trung là tường vi (薔薇).
Đây là các cây bụi mọc đứng hoặc mọc leo, thân và cành có gai. Lá kép lông chim lẻ, lá chét khía răng, có lá kèm. Hoa thơm, màu sắc đa dạng: hồng, trắng, vàng hay đỏ… Hoa thường có nhiều cánh do nhị đực biến thành. Đế hoa hình chén. Quả bế, tụ nhau trong đế hoa dày lên thành quả.
Dưới đây là một số loài hồng tiêu biểu
•Rosa beauvaisii: hồng Beauvais
•Rosa californica: hồng California
•Rosa canina: tầm xuân
•Rosa chinensis: hồng, hường, nguyệt quý hoa
•Rosa cymosa: hồng roi, tầm xuân
•Rosa gallica: hồng Pháp
•Rosa glauca (đồng nghĩa R. rubrifolia): hồng lá đỏ
•Rosa laevigata (đồng nghĩa R. sinica): hồng vụng, kim anh
•Rosa leschenaultiana: hồng Leschenault
•Rosa longicuspis: hồng mũi dài
•Rosa multiflora: tầm xuân nhiều hoa
•Rosa pimpinellifolia: hồng Scotch
•Rosa rubus: hồng đum
•Rosa rugosa: hồng Nhật, hồng Rugosa Rose
•Rosa transmorissonensis: hồng choắt
•Rosa tunquinensis: tầm xuân Bắc, quầng quầng
•Rosa virginiana (đồng nghĩa R. lucida): hồng Virginia
•Rosa yunnanensis: hồng Vân Nam
Hoa hồng trong văn hóa
Với vẻ đẹp, hình dáng và hương thơm nổi bật, hoa hồng là hoa biểu trưng hay được dùng nhất ở phương Tây, tương ứng trong tổng thể với hình tượng hoa sen ở châu Á, cả hai đều gần gũi với biểu tượng bánh xe. Trong văn hóa Ấn Độ, bông hồng vũ trụ Triparasundari được dùng làm vật đối chiếu với vẻ đẹp của người Mẹ thánh thần, biểu thị một sự hoàn mĩ trọn vẹn và không có thiếu sót. Bên cạnh đó, hoa hồng còn tượng trưng cho phần thưởng cuộc sống, tâm hồn, trái tim, tình yêu, và có thể được chiêm ngưỡng như một mandala.
Trong hệ tranh tượng Kitô giáo, hoa hồng hoặc là cái chén hứng máu của Chúa Kitô, hoặc là sự hóa thân của những giọt máu này và thậm chí, là chính vết thương của Chúa.
Hình hoa hồng gô-thích và hoa hồng hướng gió (hình hoa hồng 32 cánh ứng với 32 hướng gió) đánh dấu bước chuyển của xu hướng biểu trưng của hoa hồng sang xu hướng biểu trưng bánh xe.
Saadi de Chiraz trong đạo Hồi quan niệm vườn hoa hồng là vườn của sự quán tưởng.
Trong văn hóa phương Tây, hoa hồng, bởi sự tương hợp với màu máu chảy, thường xuất hiện như là biểu tượng của sự phục sinh huyền bí. Abd Ul Kadir Gilani so sánh hoa hồng với những vết sẹo trên cơ thể sống, trong khi đó F. Portal quan niệm hoa hồng vào màu hồng hợp thành một biểu tượng của sự tái sinh do có quan hệ gần gũi ngữ nghĩa của từ latinh rosa (hoa hồng) với ros (mưa, sương). Với người Hy Lạp hoa hồng vốn là một loài hoa màu trắng, nhưng khi Adonis bị tử thương, nữ thần Aphorodite chạy đến cứu chàng đã bị đâm phải một cái gai và máu đã nhuộm thẫm những bông hồng cung tiến nàng. Chính ý nghĩa biểu trưng về sự tái sinh đã khiến con người, từ thời cổ đại, đặt những bông hồng lên các nấm mộ, và Hecate, nữ thần âm phủ đôi khi được thể hiện với hình ảnh đầu quấn một vòng hoa hồng có five lá.
Theo Bède, ở thế kỷ VII mộ của Chúa Giêxu được sơn một màu pha lẫn trắng và đỏ. Hai yếu tố tạo thành màu của hoa hồng này, màu trắng và màu đỏ, với giá trị biểu trưng truyền thống của chúng phản ánh các bình diện từ trần tục đến thiêng liêng, trong sự khác nhau ứng với sự dâng tặng những bông hồng trắng hay đỏ[four].
Hoa hồng đã trở thành biểu tượng của tình yêu và còn hơn thế, của sự dâng hiến tình yêu, của tình yêu trong trắng, tương tự ý nghĩa của hoa sen Ai Cập và cây thủy tiên Hy Lạp[four].
Dù là màu trắng hay màu đỏ, hoa hồng cũng đều được các nhà luyện đan ưa chuộng hơn cả, mà những chuyên luận của họ thường mang những tiêu đề như "Những cây hồng của các nhà triết học". Trong khi đó, hoa hồng màu lam lại biểu tượng của cái bất khả, cái không thể đạt tới.
A rose is a perennial plant of the genus Rosa, inside the household Rosaceae. There are over 100 species. They type a group of erect shrubs, and climbing or trailing plants, with stems that are usually armed with sharp prickles. Flowers are massive and showy, in a number of colours from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller sized numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and fragrance. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can attain 7 meters in height. Species from diverse components of the planet effortlessly hybridize, which has given rise to the a lot of types of garden roses.
The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, which was maybe borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhodon (Aeolic βρόδον wrodon), related to Old Persian wrd-, Avestan varəda, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr, Armenian vard.[three]
The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are 5 to 15 centimetres (two. to 5.9 in) long, pinnate, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and frequently a couple of tiny prickles on the underside of the stem. Most roses are deciduous but a couple of (particularly from South east Asia) are evergreen or almost so.
The flowers of most species have 5 petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which usually has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is typically white or pink, although in a couple of species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the case of some Rosa sericea, 4). These may possibly be extended enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. The ovary is inferior, creating beneath the petals and sepals. Roses are insect-pollinated in nature.
The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure known as a rose hip. Numerous of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not offer access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a handful of (e.g. Rosa pimpinellifolia) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits named achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, especially the Dog Rose (Rosa canina) and Rugosa Rose (Rosa rugosa), are extremely wealthy in vitamin C, amongst the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, specifically finches, also consume the seeds.
While the sharp objects along a rose stem are typically called "thorns", they are technically prickles — outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem). (True thorns, as made by e.g. Citrus or Pyracantha, are modified stems, which constantly originate at a node and which have nodes and internodes along the length of the thorn itself.) Rose prickles are usually sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when expanding more than it. Some species such as Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia have densely packed straight spines, almost certainly an adaptation to decrease browsing by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so lessen erosion and safeguard their roots (both of these species develop naturally on coastal sand dunes). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer. A couple of species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points.
Additional information: List of Rosa species
The genus Rosa is subdivided into four subgenera:
•Hulthemia (formerly Simplicifoliae, which means "with single leaves") containing one or two species from southwest Asia, R. persica and Rosa berberifolia which are the only roses with out compound leaves or stipules.
•Hesperrhodos (from the Greek for "western rose") includes Rosa minutifolia and Rosa stellata, from North America.
•Platyrhodon (from the Greek for "flaky rose", referring to flaky bark) with 1 species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii.
•Rosa (the sort subgenus) containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections.
oBanksianae – white and yellow flowered roses from China.
oBracteatae – three species, two from China and 1 from India.
oCaninae – pink and white flowered species from Asia, Europe and North Africa.
oCarolinae – white, pink, and vibrant pink flowered species all from North America.
oChinensis – white, pink, yellow, red and mixed-color roses from China and Burma.
oGallicanae – pink to crimson and striped flowered roses from western Asia and Europe.
oGymnocarpae – a single species in western North America (Rosa gymnocarpa), other folks in east Asia.
oLaevigatae – a single white flowered species from China
oPimpinellifoliae – white, pink, vibrant yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia and Europe.
oRosa (syn. sect. Cinnamomeae) – white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from everywhere but North Africa.
oSynstylae – white, pink, and crimson flowered roses from all regions.
Roses are ideal identified as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and occasionally indoors. They have been also used for industrial perfumery and industrial cut flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover. They also have minor medicinal makes use of.
The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that have been bred for their flowers. A handful of, mainly species roses are grown for eye-catching or scented foliage (such as Rosa glauca and Rosa rubiginosa), ornamental thorns (such as Rosa sericea) or for their showy fruit (such as Rosa moyesii).
Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation identified to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean nations, Persia, and China.[four] Numerous thousands of rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use as flowering plants. Most are double-flowered with many or all of the stamens getting mutated into additional petals.
In the early 19th century the Empress Josephine of France patronized the improvement of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison. As extended ago as 1840 a collection numbering more than a single thousand diverse cultivars, varieties and species was feasible when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England.
A handful of species and hybrids are grown for non-floral ornamental use. Among these are these grown for prominent hips, such as the flagon shaped hips of Rosa moyesii. At times even the thorns can be treated as an attraction or curiosity, such as with Rosa sericea.
Bouquet of pink roses
Roses are a popular crop for each domestic and commercial reduce flowers. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated situations till ready for display at their point of sale.
In temperate climates, reduce roses are typically grown in glasshouses, and in warmer countries they could also be grown below cover in order to make certain that the flowers are not damaged by climate and that pests and disease handle can be carried out successfully. Important quantities are grown in some tropical nations, and these are shipped by air to markets across the globe.
Major article: Rose oil
Rose perfumes are made from attar of roses or rose oil, which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An related product is rose water which is utilised for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and in religious practices. The production method originated in Persia then spread by means of Arabia and India, but presently about 70% to 80% of production is in the Rose Valley close to Kazanluk in Bulgaria, with some production in Qamsar in Iran and Germany. The Kaaba in Mecca is annually washed by the Iranian rose water from Qamsar[citation necessary]. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (Rosa damascena ‘Trigintipetala’) are utilized. In the French rose oil business Rosa centifolia is utilized. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour. ‘Rose Absolute’ is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in colour. The weight of oil extracted is about a single 3-thousandth to a single six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers for instance, about two thousand flowers are essential to generate 1 gram of oil.
The principal constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and l-citronellol and rose camphor, an odourless paraffin. β-Damascenone is also a considerable contributor to the scent.
Rose water, made as a byproduct of rose oil production, is widely used in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. The French are identified for their rose syrup, most typically produced from an extract of rose petals. In the United States, this French rose syrup is utilised to make rose scones and marshmallows.
The rose hip, the fruit of some species, is employed as a minor supply of Vitamin C.
Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, and marmalade, or are brewed for tea, mostly for their higher vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also employed to generate Rose hip seed oil, which is utilised in skin goods and some makeup products.
The fruits of a lot of species have considerable levels of vitamins and have been used as a meals supplement (see earlier section). Many roses have been utilized in herbal and folk medicines. Rosa chinensis has lengthy been used in Chinese standard medicine. This and other species have been used for stomach troubles, and are becoming investigated for controlling cancer growth.
Roses are a favored topic in art and consequently utilised in numerous artistic disciplines. They appear in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as architectural elements. The Luxembourg born Belgian artist and botanist Pierre-Joseph Redouté is identified for his detailed watercolours of flowers, especially roses.
Renoir’s painting of cabbage roses, Roses in a vase
Henri Fantin-Latour was also a prolific painter of nevertheless life, specifically flowers which includes roses. The Rose ‘Fantin-Latour’ was named right after the artist.
Other impressionists like Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne and Pierre-Auguste Renoir have paintings of roses among their operates.
Further info: Rose (symbolism)
The long cultural history of the rose has led to it becoming used frequently as a symbol.
Pests and diseases
Major articles: Pests and diseases of roses and List of rose ailments
Roses are topic to numerous diseases. The major fungal illnesses affecting the leaves are rose black spot (Diplocarpon rosae), rose rust (Phragmidium mucronatum), rose powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa) and rose downy mildew (Peronospora sparsa). Stems can be impacted by several canker ailments, the most typically seen of which is stem canker (Leptosphaeria coniothyrium). Ailments of the root zone contain honey fungus (Armillaria spp.), verticillium wilt, and various species of phytophthora.
Fungal leaf illnesses affecting roses are very best prevented by choosing to develop cultivars and species known to be less susceptible to attack, and by using a preventative fungicidal spray program (rather than by attempting to remedy an infection after it emerges on the plant). After illness is visible, spread can be minimized through pruning and the use of fungicides, despite the fact that the actual infection can not be reversed. Stem cankers are best treated by pruning out infection as soon as it is noticed. Root ailments are not generally possible to treat, as soon as infection has occurred the most practical line of defence is to guarantee that growing conditions maximise plant well being and thereby avoid infection. Phytophthora species are waterborne and as a result improving drainage and reducing waterlogging can assist minimize infection.
The major pest affecting roses is the aphid (greenfly), which sucks the sap and weakens the plant. (Ladybugs are a predator of aphids and ought to be encouraged in the rose garden.) In places exactly where they are endemic Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) take a heavy toll on rose flowers and foliage rose blooms can also be destroyed by infestations of thrips (Thysanoptera spp). Roses are also employed as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species see list of Lepidoptera that feed on roses. The spraying with insecticide of roses is usually recommended but ought to be done with care to reduce the loss of useful insects.
Image from page 404 of “Mandalay to Momien: A narrative of the two expeditions to western China of 1868 and 1875, below Colonel Edward B. Sladen and Colonel Horace Browne” (1876)
Image by Internet Archive Book Pictures
Title: Mandalay to Momien: A narrative of the two expeditions to western China of 1868 and 1875, below Colonel Edward B. Sladen and Colonel Horace Browne
Year: 1876 (1870s)
Authors: Anderson, John, 1833-1900 Sladen, E. B. (Edward Bosc), 1827-1890 Browne, Horace Albert, 1832-1914
Publisher: London : Macmillan
Contributing Library: University of California Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Web Archive
Click here to view book on the web to see this illustration in context in a browseable on the internet version of this book.
Text Appearing Before Image:
tumblers wasremarkable. A single man would, as it had been, fly ratherthan spring over a row of nine boys arranged as iffor leap-frog. He also leapt by means of a square formedby keen-edged knives held by two males, and disposedwith the edges at proper angles to his progress, andgiving barely space for the passage of his body. Oneremarkable exhibition was that of a girl of sixteen,who possessed most singular elasticity of body. Shelaid herself on the ground, and, with out apparenteffort or distress, bent her body backwards till hertoes rested on her head, as shown in the illustrationtaken from a photograph. She also possessed thepower of moving the muscle tissues of one particular side of her faceand physique, whilst those of the other side remained in aperfect state of repose. The feats of the jugglerswere even more puzzling than these of the Indianperformers, and seemed to be very common with thecrowd. The day soon after our arrival, the foreign minister,or hengwoon meng-gyee, paid us a pay a visit to, and invited ,. i:#l/ i.i.i
Text Appearing Following Image:
RECEPTION BY THE MENG-GYEES. 355 us to a breakfast, which was served with wonderful pro-fusion, and was ahnost English in its style. At aseparate table tea was ready of two sorts 1 theordinary infusion of tea leaves, the other from hardblack cakes stamped with Chinese letters, and exactlyresembling tablets of Indian ink. These are preparedby the Shans from the Chinese leaf tea, and create aliquor as pale as sherry, but of outstanding flavour.The check out and breakfast of the foreign minister wasfollowed in due succession by similar civilities onthe part of the other meng-gyees and a day wasappointed for our presentation to the king, an honourwhich had been vouchsafed to the mission of 1868neither on its outward nor homeward journey. Ac-companied by the British Resident, Captain Strover,we proceeded on royal elephants, sent for our use, tothe palace enclosure, exactly where we located the meng-gyeesseated on carpets in a small hlot, or open hall, outsidethe palace gate. Obtaining doffed our footwear, w
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The Excellent Wave
Image by Byzantine_K
The Wonderful Wave of Tory Greed.
You would have thought that the legacy of Thatcher and the recent banking crash was a lesson adequate in the consequences of purely self-serving and unbridled greed. Apparently not.
The solutions that have been privatised beneath the final (and at least in fact elected) Tory government are a continuing bane of our lives and their privatisation has benefitted no-one particular but their owners, shareholders, and executives.
The privatisation of our power and water supplies has led to these important solutions becoming operated by profiteering corporations everywhere from right here to China. We have observed massive increases in bills, ridiculous charges for solutions, and the endless hounding to take up pricey insurances to pay for issues that have been when dealt with as component of the general service to customers.
Our public transport has been run into the ground with poor and delayed solutions, poor line maintenance, filthy trains and outrages fares – much more than doubling in the last decade. Failure to even adequately maintain the infrastructure led to severe and fatal rail disasters some years back. Additionally, the soaring and sometimes unjustified higher price of petrol. Companies are only as well willing to raise the cost in-line with any enhance in oil prices, significantly less prepared however to lower them once more when the oil cost falls back.
Then there is such as the postal service. Creating the postal service self adequate was clearly not sufficient of course. It ‘has’ to make excessive income and at our considerable expense. The cost of postage no longer rises by a couple of pence, and because 2002 the price of a 1st class stamp has doubled from 30p to 60p. Has the earnings of any individual who isn’t a banker, an executive or equivalent, doubled because 2002? No. Nothing at all like it. If something in actual terms the income of most has truly fallen.
And there are of course other examples. But what about now – the new wave of privatisation and cuts which is, and will, actually devastate the UK?
The National Well being Service is being gutted and sold off to cash hungry corporations and thier greedy owners such as Richard Branson and his so-referred to as ‘Virgin Care’. NHS hospitals are getting privatised now, and other individuals closed. Tens of thousands of NHS employees have been produced redundant and more are to be reduce soon over 4000 employees from just a single NHS Trust are getting asked to consider redundancy as many will soon be axed. The NHS is currently overstretched with employees being let go and fewer students unsurprisingly selecting to persue a career in healthcare. Firms who have already bought into the NHS have been found to be deliberately operating down services in an attempt to entice people into picking costly private possibilities. A lot more advertising is appearing for costly private overall health solutions and insurances – and thinking about how insurers treat their personal customers, this is not a very good trend to be persuing. Several major insurers are recently revealed to have been spying on consumers, including serveillance and even getting into houses below false pretences and secretely taking photographs within, the purpose getting to assist in difficult or denying claims. The reality is that healthcare insurers like any other insurer will and do place profit before ANY other consideration. They will stop at nothing to limit or alltogether deny a claim and numerous – possibly all – overall health insurances have exemptions in remedy and care.
Education is becoming ruined with endless bureacracy, and an education program increasingly geared towards the interests of company and profit. It should not be forgotten that a lot of Tories did and nonetheless do resent the idea of state education and would love nothing a lot more than to have all schools as charge-paying, as they feel that children should get only as good an education as their parents can afford.
Beyond this of course, the would-be-laughable if not so worrying drive to slowly privatise the Police service. How will you really feel about Police employed by such as the incompetant and profit-orientated security organization G4S? Several of the staff within police stations are already privately contracted – if this trend continues it is not a case of if but when the logos of corporate affiliation seem on officer’s uniforms, and thier skills and priorities turn out to be genuinely questionable.
All in all, the Conservative Party and their wealthy associates, their "lapdog" and weak willed Liberal Democrat allies, are top this nation back into a much less responsible, less reasoned and much less caring age, and we will all endure for it. Most of the progress produced because the end of Globe War II has been stripped away in the addiction for wealth and energy by an insulated and careless minority. And, this is frequently with the help or just by means of the apathy of those who will suffer the most from all of this. Us. Do practically nothing now and you will spend later – in all senses. If you are not independently wealthy, do not have a rich and generous loved ones, or are not a Parlimentary politician you must be afraid. Extremely afraid.