Some cool stamping parts china photos:
Image by Hoa Trai Viet Nam
Hoa Hồng Rosa Rosaceae
Hồng hay hường là tên gọi chung cho các loài thực vật có hoa dạng cây bụi hoặc cây leo lâu năm thuộc chi Rosa, họ Rosaceae, với hơn one hundred loài với màu hoa đa dạng, phân bố từ miền ôn đới đến nhiệt đới. Các loài này nổi tiếng vì hoa đẹp nên thường gọi là hoa hồng. Đa phần có nguồn gốc bản địa châu Á, số ít còn lại có nguồn gốc bản địa châu Âu, Bắc Mỹ, và Tây Bắc Phi. Các loài bản địa, giống cây trồng và cây lai ghép đều được trồng làm cảnh và lấy hương thơm.. Đôi khi các loài này được gọi theo tiếng Trung là tường vi (薔薇).
Đây là các cây bụi mọc đứng hoặc mọc leo, thân và cành có gai. Lá kép lông chim lẻ, lá chét khía răng, có lá kèm. Hoa thơm, màu sắc đa dạng: hồng, trắng, vàng hay đỏ… Hoa thường có nhiều cánh do nhị đực biến thành. Đế hoa hình chén. Quả bế, tụ nhau trong đế hoa dày lên thành quả.
Dưới đây là một số loài hồng tiêu biểu
•Rosa beauvaisii: hồng Beauvais
•Rosa californica: hồng California
•Rosa canina: tầm xuân
•Rosa chinensis: hồng, hường, nguyệt quý hoa
•Rosa cymosa: hồng roi, tầm xuân
•Rosa gallica: hồng Pháp
•Rosa glauca (đồng nghĩa R. rubrifolia): hồng lá đỏ
•Rosa laevigata (đồng nghĩa R. sinica): hồng vụng, kim anh
•Rosa leschenaultiana: hồng Leschenault
•Rosa longicuspis: hồng mũi dài
•Rosa multiflora: tầm xuân nhiều hoa
•Rosa pimpinellifolia: hồng Scotch
•Rosa rubus: hồng đum
•Rosa rugosa: hồng Nhật, hồng Rugosa Rose
•Rosa transmorissonensis: hồng choắt
•Rosa tunquinensis: tầm xuân Bắc, quầng quầng
•Rosa virginiana (đồng nghĩa R. lucida): hồng Virginia
•Rosa yunnanensis: hồng Vân Nam
Hoa hồng trong văn hóa
Với vẻ đẹp, hình dáng và hương thơm nổi bật, hoa hồng là hoa biểu trưng hay được dùng nhất ở phương Tây, tương ứng trong tổng thể với hình tượng hoa sen ở châu Á, cả hai đều gần gũi với biểu tượng bánh xe. Trong văn hóa Ấn Độ, bông hồng vũ trụ Triparasundari được dùng làm vật đối chiếu với vẻ đẹp của người Mẹ thánh thần, biểu thị một sự hoàn mĩ trọn vẹn và không có thiếu sót. Bên cạnh đó, hoa hồng còn tượng trưng cho phần thưởng cuộc sống, tâm hồn, trái tim, tình yêu, và có thể được chiêm ngưỡng như một mandala.
Trong hệ tranh tượng Kitô giáo, hoa hồng hoặc là cái chén hứng máu của Chúa Kitô, hoặc là sự hóa thân của những giọt máu này và thậm chí, là chính vết thương của Chúa.
Hình hoa hồng gô-thích và hoa hồng hướng gió (hình hoa hồng 32 cánh ứng với 32 hướng gió) đánh dấu bước chuyển của xu hướng biểu trưng của hoa hồng sang xu hướng biểu trưng bánh xe.
Saadi de Chiraz trong đạo Hồi quan niệm vườn hoa hồng là vườn của sự quán tưởng.
Trong văn hóa phương Tây, hoa hồng, bởi sự tương hợp với màu máu chảy, thường xuất hiện như là biểu tượng của sự phục sinh huyền bí. Abd Ul Kadir Gilani so sánh hoa hồng với những vết sẹo trên cơ thể sống, trong khi đó F. Portal quan niệm hoa hồng vào màu hồng hợp thành một biểu tượng của sự tái sinh do có quan hệ gần gũi ngữ nghĩa của từ latinh rosa (hoa hồng) với ros (mưa, sương). Với người Hy Lạp hoa hồng vốn là một loài hoa màu trắng, nhưng khi Adonis bị tử thương, nữ thần Aphorodite chạy đến cứu chàng đã bị đâm phải một cái gai và máu đã nhuộm thẫm những bông hồng cung tiến nàng. Chính ý nghĩa biểu trưng về sự tái sinh đã khiến con người, từ thời cổ đại, đặt những bông hồng lên các nấm mộ, và Hecate, nữ thần âm phủ đôi khi được thể hiện với hình ảnh đầu quấn một vòng hoa hồng có 5 lá.
Theo Bède, ở thế kỷ VII mộ của Chúa Giêxu được sơn một màu pha lẫn trắng và đỏ. Hai yếu tố tạo thành màu của hoa hồng này, màu trắng và màu đỏ, với giá trị biểu trưng truyền thống của chúng phản ánh các bình diện từ trần tục đến thiêng liêng, trong sự khác nhau ứng với sự dâng tặng những bông hồng trắng hay đỏ[four].
Hoa hồng đã trở thành biểu tượng của tình yêu và còn hơn thế, của sự dâng hiến tình yêu, của tình yêu trong trắng, tương tự ý nghĩa của hoa sen Ai Cập và cây thủy tiên Hy Lạp.
Dù là màu trắng hay màu đỏ, hoa hồng cũng đều được các nhà luyện đan ưa chuộng hơn cả, mà những chuyên luận của họ thường mang những tiêu đề như "Những cây hồng của các nhà triết học". Trong khi đó, hoa hồng màu lam lại biểu tượng của cái bất khả, cái không thể đạt tới.
A rose is a perennial plant of the genus Rosa, within the loved ones Rosaceae. There are more than one hundred species. They kind a group of erect shrubs, and climbing or trailing plants, with stems that are frequently armed with sharp prickles. Flowers are massive and showy, in a quantity of colours from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller sized numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and fragrance. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can attain 7 meters in height. Species from diverse components of the world very easily hybridize, which has offered rise to the several varieties of garden roses.
The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, which was perhaps borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhodon (Aeolic βρόδον wrodon), associated to Old Persian wrd-, Avestan varəda, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr, Armenian vard.
The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are five to 15 centimetres (2. to five.9 in) long, pinnate, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and typically a few tiny prickles on the underside of the stem. Most roses are deciduous but a few (particularly from South east Asia) are evergreen or almost so.
The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which generally has only 4. Every single petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, even though in a handful of species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the case of some Rosa sericea, four). These may be extended enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. The ovary is inferior, developing beneath the petals and sepals. Roses are insect-pollinated in nature.
The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Numerous of the domestic cultivars do not create hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a couple of (e.g. Rosa pimpinellifolia) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which consists of 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits known as achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, particularly the Dog Rose (Rosa canina) and Rugosa Rose (Rosa rugosa), are quite wealthy in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-consuming birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, especially finches, also eat the seeds.
Even though the sharp objects along a rose stem are frequently named "thorns", they are technically prickles — outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem). (Accurate thorns, as made by e.g. Citrus or Pyracantha, are modified stems, which constantly originate at a node and which have nodes and internodes along the length of the thorn itself.) Rose prickles are generally sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when increasing over it. Some species such as Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia have densely packed straight spines, probably an adaptation to lessen browsing by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (each of these species grow naturally on coastal sand dunes). Regardless of the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer. A handful of species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points.
Additional details: List of Rosa species
The genus Rosa is subdivided into four subgenera:
•Hulthemia (formerly Simplicifoliae, meaning "with single leaves") containing a single or two species from southwest Asia, R. persica and Rosa berberifolia which are the only roses with out compound leaves or stipules.
•Hesperrhodos (from the Greek for "western rose") includes Rosa minutifolia and Rosa stellata, from North America.
•Platyrhodon (from the Greek for "flaky rose", referring to flaky bark) with a single species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii.
•Rosa (the type subgenus) containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections.
oBanksianae – white and yellow flowered roses from China.
oBracteatae – three species, two from China and one particular from India.
oCaninae – pink and white flowered species from Asia, Europe and North Africa.
oCarolinae – white, pink, and bright pink flowered species all from North America.
oChinensis – white, pink, yellow, red and mixed-color roses from China and Burma.
oGallicanae – pink to crimson and striped flowered roses from western Asia and Europe.
oGymnocarpae – one species in western North America (Rosa gymnocarpa), other folks in east Asia.
oLaevigatae – a single white flowered species from China
oPimpinellifoliae – white, pink, bright yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia and Europe.
oRosa (syn. sect. Cinnamomeae) – white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from everywhere but North Africa.
oSynstylae – white, pink, and crimson flowered roses from all places.
Roses are ideal identified as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and occasionally indoors. They have been also utilised for commercial perfumery and industrial reduce flower crops. Some are utilized as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover. They also have minor medicinal uses.
The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that have been bred for their flowers. A handful of, mostly species roses are grown for eye-catching or scented foliage (such as Rosa glauca and Rosa rubiginosa), ornamental thorns (such as Rosa sericea) or for their showy fruit (such as Rosa moyesii).
Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest recognized cultivation identified to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean nations, Persia, and China.[four] Many thousands of rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and chosen for garden use as flowering plants. Most are double-flowered with a lot of or all of the stamens possessing mutated into added petals.
In the early 19th century the Empress Josephine of France patronized the development of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison. As extended ago as 1840 a collection numbering more than one thousand various cultivars, varieties and species was achievable when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England.
A few species and hybrids are grown for non-floral ornamental use. Amongst these are these grown for prominent hips, such as the flagon shaped hips of Rosa moyesii. Occasionally even the thorns can be treated as an attraction or curiosity, such as with Rosa sericea.
Bouquet of pink roses
Roses are a common crop for each domestic and commercial reduce flowers. Normally they are harvested and reduce when in bud, and held in refrigerated situations till prepared for display at their point of sale.
In temperate climates, reduce roses are often grown in glasshouses, and in warmer nations they could also be grown below cover in order to make sure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pests and illness handle can be carried out efficiently. Considerable quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world.
Primary write-up: Rose oil
Rose perfumes are made from attar of roses or rose oil, which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An associated solution is rose water which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and in religious practices. The production strategy originated in Persia then spread through Arabia and India, but these days about 70% to 80% of production is in the Rose Valley close to Kazanluk in Bulgaria, with some production in Qamsar in Iran and Germany.[citation required] The Kaaba in Mecca is annually washed by the Iranian rose water from Qamsar. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (Rosa damascena ‘Trigintipetala’) are used. In the French rose oil industry Rosa centifolia is used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour. ‘Rose Absolute’ is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in colour. The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers for example, about two thousand flowers are essential to make a single gram of oil.
The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and l-citronellol and rose camphor, an odourless paraffin. β-Damascenone is also a important contributor to the scent.
Rose water, produced as a byproduct of rose oil production, is extensively used in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. The French are known for their rose syrup, most typically created from an extract of rose petals. In the United States, this French rose syrup is used to make rose scones and marshmallows.
The rose hip, the fruit of some species, is used as a minor source of Vitamin C.
Rose hips are sometimes made into jam, jelly, and marmalade, or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also utilised to produce Rose hip seed oil, which is used in skin merchandise and some makeup products.
The fruits of several species have substantial levels of vitamins and have been utilized as a meals supplement (see earlier section). A lot of roses have been utilised in herbal and folk medicines. Rosa chinensis has extended been utilized in Chinese standard medicine. This and other species have been used for stomach problems, and are getting investigated for controlling cancer growth.[six]
Roses are a favored subject in art and for that reason employed in a variety of artistic disciplines. They seem in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as architectural elements. The Luxembourg born Belgian artist and botanist Pierre-Joseph Redouté is identified for his detailed watercolours of flowers, specifically roses.
Renoir’s painting of cabbage roses, Roses in a vase
Henri Fantin-Latour was also a prolific painter of nevertheless life, especially flowers including roses. The Rose ‘Fantin-Latour’ was named soon after the artist.
Other impressionists including Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne and Pierre-Auguste Renoir have paintings of roses among their functions.
Further information: Rose (symbolism)
The long cultural history of the rose has led to it becoming utilized frequently as a symbol.
Pests and ailments
Primary articles: Pests and diseases of roses and List of rose illnesses
Roses are subject to numerous illnesses. The major fungal diseases affecting the leaves are rose black spot (Diplocarpon rosae), rose rust (Phragmidium mucronatum), rose powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa) and rose downy mildew (Peronospora sparsa). Stems can be affected by many canker illnesses, the most commonly observed of which is stem canker (Leptosphaeria coniothyrium). Illnesses of the root zone include honey fungus (Armillaria spp.), verticillium wilt, and numerous species of phytophthora.
Fungal leaf diseases affecting roses are greatest prevented by choosing to grow cultivars and species recognized to be less susceptible to attack, and by employing a preventative fungicidal spray system (rather than by attempting to remedy an infection after it emerges on the plant). After disease is visible, spread can be minimized through pruning and the use of fungicides, despite the fact that the actual infection cannot be reversed. Stem cankers are best treated by pruning out infection as quickly as it is noticed. Root illnesses are not generally possible to treat, once infection has occurred the most practical line of defence is to make sure that expanding conditions maximise plant well being and thereby stop infection. Phytophthora species are waterborne and for that reason enhancing drainage and decreasing waterlogging can aid reduce infection.
The principal pest affecting roses is the aphid (greenfly), which sucks the sap and weakens the plant. (Ladybugs are a predator of aphids and need to be encouraged in the rose garden.) In locations exactly where they are endemic Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) take a heavy toll on rose flowers and foliage rose blooms can also be destroyed by infestations of thrips (Thysanoptera spp). Roses are also utilised as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species see list of Lepidoptera that feed on roses. The spraying with insecticide of roses is usually advisable but need to be completed with care to decrease the loss of useful insects.
Image from web page 404 of “Mandalay to Momien: A narrative of the two expeditions to western China of 1868 and 1875, below Colonel Edward B. Sladen and Colonel Horace Browne” (1876)
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Title: Mandalay to Momien: A narrative of the two expeditions to western China of 1868 and 1875, below Colonel Edward B. Sladen and Colonel Horace Browne
Year: 1876 (1870s)
Authors: Anderson, John, 1833-1900 Sladen, E. B. (Edward Bosc), 1827-1890 Browne, Horace Albert, 1832-1914
Publisher: London : Macmillan
Contributing Library: University of California Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: World wide web Archive
Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable on the internet version of this book.
Text Appearing Ahead of Image:
tumblers wasremarkable. A single man would, as it have been, fly ratherthan spring over a row of nine boys arranged as iffor leap-frog. He also leapt through a square formedby keen-edged knives held by two men, and disposedwith the edges at correct angles to his progress, andgiving barely space for the passage of his physique. Oneremarkable exhibition was that of a girl of sixteen,who possessed most singular elasticity of physique. Shelaid herself on the ground, and, without apparenteffort or distress, bent her body backwards till hertoes rested on her head, as shown in the illustrationtaken from a photograph. She also possessed thepower of moving the muscles of one side of her faceand physique, whilst those of the other side remained in aperfect state of repose. The feats of the jugglerswere even more puzzling than these of the Indianperformers, and seemed to be very common with thecrowd. The day after our arrival, the foreign minister,or hengwoon meng-gyee, paid us a check out, and invited ,. i:#l/ i.i.i
Text Appearing Following Image:
RECEPTION BY THE MENG-GYEES. 355 us to a breakfast, which was served with great pro-fusion, and was ahnost English in its style. At aseparate table tea was prepared of two sorts a single theordinary infusion of tea leaves, the other from hardblack cakes stamped with Chinese letters, and exactlyresembling tablets of Indian ink. These are preparedby the Shans from the Chinese leaf tea, and generate aliquor as pale as sherry, but of superb flavour.The visit and breakfast of the foreign minister wasfollowed in due succession by equivalent civilities onthe component of the other meng-gyees and a day wasappointed for our presentation to the king, an honourwhich had been vouchsafed to the mission of 1868neither on its outward nor homeward journey. Ac-companied by the British Resident, Captain Strover,we proceeded on royal elephants, sent for our use, tothe palace enclosure, exactly where we found the meng-gyeesseated on carpets in a modest hlot, or open hall, outsidethe palace gate. Obtaining doffed our footwear, w
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The Fantastic Wave
Image by Byzantine_K
The Fantastic Wave of Tory Greed.
You would have believed that the legacy of Thatcher and the recent banking crash was a lesson adequate in the consequences of purely self-serving and unbridled greed. Apparently not.
The services that have been privatised below the last (and at least really elected) Tory government are a continuing bane of our lives and their privatisation has benefitted no-1 but their owners, shareholders, and executives.
The privatisation of our energy and water supplies has led to these essential services getting operated by profiteering corporations everywhere from right here to China. We have seen huge increases in bills, ridiculous charges for solutions, and the endless hounding to take up pricey insurances to pay for issues that had been once dealt with as element of the overall service to clients.
Our public transport has been run into the ground with poor and delayed services, poor line upkeep, filthy trains and outrages fares – more than doubling in the last decade. Failure to even adequately preserve the infrastructure led to critical and fatal rail disasters some years back. Furthermore, the soaring and occasionally unjustified high price of petrol. Businesses are only as well prepared to raise the price in-line with any boost in oil rates, significantly less prepared even so to reduce them once more when the oil cost falls back.
Then there is such as the postal service. Creating the postal service self adequate was clearly not sufficient of course. It ‘has’ to make excessive income and at our considerable expense. The cost of postage no longer rises by a few pence, and given that 2002 the cost of a 1st class stamp has doubled from 30p to 60p. Has the income of any person who isn’t a banker, an executive or comparable, doubled given that 2002? No. Absolutely nothing like it. If something in actual terms the earnings of most has really fallen.
And there are of course other examples. But what about now – the new wave of privatisation and cuts which is, and will, literally devastate the UK?
The National Well being Service is being gutted and sold off to funds hungry corporations and thier greedy owners such as Richard Branson and his so-referred to as ‘Virgin Care’. NHS hospitals are becoming privatised now, and others closed. Tens of thousands of NHS staff have been produced redundant and far more are to be reduce quickly more than 4000 employees from just a single NHS Trust are becoming asked to take into account redundancy as a lot of will quickly be axed. The NHS is already overstretched with employees becoming let go and fewer students unsurprisingly selecting to persue a career in healthcare. Businesses who have already bought into the NHS have been identified to be deliberately running down solutions in an attempt to entice people into picking high-priced private choices. Much more marketing is appearing for costly private health solutions and insurances – and taking into consideration how insurers treat their personal consumers, this is not a excellent trend to be persuing. Several significant insurers are lately revealed to have been spying on clients, which includes serveillance and even entering houses under false pretences and secretely taking images inside, the objective being to help in difficult or denying claims. The reality is that healthcare insurers like any other insurer will and do put profit just before ANY other consideration. They will stop at nothing at all to limit or alltogether deny a claim and a lot of – possibly all – health insurances have exemptions in treatment and care.
Education is getting ruined with endless bureacracy, and an education method increasingly geared towards the interests of organization and profit. It ought to not be forgotten that a lot of Tories did and nevertheless do resent the concept of state education and would love practically nothing far more than to have all schools as charge-paying, as they consider that kids must get only as very good an education as their parents can afford.
Beyond this of course, the would-be-laughable if not so worrying drive to slowly privatise the Police service. How will you really feel about Police employed by such as the incompetant and profit-orientated security business G4S? Several of the staff within police stations are currently privately contracted – if this trend continues it is not a case of if but when the logos of corporate affiliation seem on officer’s uniforms, and thier abilities and priorities turn into truly questionable.
All in all, the Conservative Party and their wealthy associates, their "lapdog" and weak willed Liberal Democrat allies, are top this country back into a less accountable, significantly less reasoned and much less caring age, and we will all endure for it. Most of the progress created because the end of Planet War II has been stripped away in the addiction for wealth and energy by an insulated and careless minority. And, this is often with the help or merely through the apathy of those who will endure the most from all of this. Us. Do practically nothing now and you will pay later – in all senses. If you are not independently wealthy, do not have a rich and generous loved ones, or are not a Parlimentary politician you should be afraid. Really afraid.