Boeing B-17 & P-51 Mustangs – Duxford Airshow Oct 2010

Boeing B-17 & P-51 Mustangs – Duxford Airshow Oct 2010

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Boeing B-17 & P-51 Mustangs – Duxford Airshow Oct 2010
precision engineering
Image by Feggy Art
Boeing B-17 + P51 Mustangs at Duxford Airshow October 2010.

The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress was a four-engine heavy bomber aircraft created in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC). Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to develop 200 bombers, the Boeing entry outperformed each competitors and far more than met the Air Corps’ expectations. Despite the fact that Boeing lost the contract because the prototype crashed, the Air Corps was so impressed with Boeing’s style that they ordered 13 much more B-17s for additional evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through several style advances.

The B-17 was mainly employed by the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) in the daylight precision strategic bombing campaign of World War II against German industrial and military targets. The United States Eighth Air Force primarily based at Thorpe Abbotts airfield in England and the Fifteenth Air Force based in Italy complemented the RAF Bomber Command’s nighttime area bombing in Operation Pointblank to support safe air superiority more than the cities, factories and battlefields of Western Europe in preparation for Operation Overlord. The B-17 also participated to a lesser extent in the War in the Pacific where it performed raids against Japanese shipping and airfields.

From its pre-war inception, the USAAC (later USAAF) touted the aircraft as a strategic weapon it was a potent, higher-flying, long-range bomber that was capable to defend itself, and to return residence despite extensive battle harm. It rapidly took on mythic proportions, and extensively circulated stories and photos of B-17s surviving battle damage enhanced its iconic status. With a service ceiling higher than any of its Allied contemporaries, the B-17 established itself as an effective weapons program, dropping more bombs than any other U.S. aircraft in Planet War II. Of the 1.five million metric tons of bombs dropped on Germany by U.S. aircraft, 640,000 tons were dropped from B-17s.


•B17: Memphis Belle, 124485, 44-83546, N3703G, 23060/LN-T
•Mustang 1: Miss Velma, N251RJ, NX251RJ, 44-84847
•Mustang 2: Ferocious Frankie, 413704, G-BTCD
•Mustang three: Large Beautiful Doll, G-HAEC

General qualities

•Crew: ten: Pilot, co-pilot, navigator, bombardier/nose gunner, flight engineer-best turret gunner, radio operator, waist gunners (2), ball turret gunner, tail gunner
•Length: 74 ft 4 in (22.66 m)
•Wingspan: 103 ft 9 in (31.62 m)
•Height: 19 ft 1 in (five.82 m)
•Wing region: 1,420 sq ft (131.92 m2)
•Airfoil: NACA 0018 / NACA 0010
•Aspect ratio: 7.57
•Empty weight: 36,135 lb (16,391 kg)
•Loaded weight: 54,000 lb (24,500 kg)
•Max takeoff weight: 65,500 lb (29,700 kg)
•Powerplant: 4× Wright R-1820-97 Cyclone turbo supercharged radial engines, 1,200 hp (895 kW) every

Overall performance

•Maximum speed: 287 mph (249 kn, 462 km/h)
•Cruise speed: 182 mph (158 kn, 293 km/h)
•Range: 2,000 mi (1,738 nmi, three,219 km) with 2,700 kg (6,000 lb) bombload
•Service ceiling: 35,600 ft (ten,850 m)
•Rate of climb: 900 ft/min (4.6 m/s)
•Wing loading: 38. lb/sq ft (185.7 kg/m2)
•Power/mass: .089 hp/lb (150 W/kg)


•Guns: 13 × 50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns in 4 turrets in dorsal, ventral, nose and tail, 2 in waist positions, two beside cockpit and 1 in the reduce dorsal position
•Short range missions (&lt400 mi): eight,000 lb (three,600 kg)
•Long range missions (≈800 mi): 4,500 lb (2,000 kg)
•Overload: 17,600 lb (7,800 kg)


P-51 Mustang

The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang was an American extended-range single-seat Globe War II fighter aircraft. Developed and built in just 117 days, the Mustang 1st flew in Royal Air Force (RAF) service as a fighter-bomber and reconnaissance aircraft just before conversion to a bomber escort, employed in raids over Germany, assisting make certain Allied air superiority from early 1944. The P-51 was in service with Allied air forces in Europe and also saw restricted service against the Japanese in the Pacific War. The Mustang began the Korean War as the United Nations’ principal fighter, but was relegated to a ground attack function when superseded by jet fighters early in the conflict. Nevertheless, it remained in service with some air forces till the early 1980s.

Basic qualities

•Crew: 1
•Length: 32 ft three in (9.83 m)
•Wingspan: 37 ft in (11.28 m)
•Height: 13 ft 4½ in (4.08 m:tail wheel on ground, vertical propeller blade.)
•Wing area: 235 ft² (21.83 m²)
•Empty weight: 7,635 lb (three,465 kg)
•Loaded weight: 9,200 lb (four,175 kg)
•Max takeoff weight: 12,one hundred lb (5,490 kg)
•Powerplant: 1× Packard V-1650-7 liquid-cooled supercharged V-12, 1,490 hp (1,111 kW) at three,000 rpm 1,720 hp (1,282 kW) at WEP
•Zero-lift drag coefficient: .0163
•Drag area: 3.80 ft² (.35 m²)
•Aspect ratio: five.83


•Maximum speed: 437 mph (703 km/h) at 25,000 ft (7,600 m)
•Cruise speed: 362 mph (580 km/h)
•Stall speed: one hundred mph (160 km/h)
•Range: 1,650 mi (two,755 km) with external tanks
•Service ceiling: 41,900 ft (12,800 m)
•Rate of climb: three,200 ft/min (16.three m/s)
•Wing loading: 39 lb/ft² (192 kg/m²)
•Power/mass: .18 hp/lb (300 W/kg)
•Lift-to-drag ratio: 14.6
•Recommended Mach limit .eight


•6× .50 caliber (12.7mm) M2 Browning machine guns with 1,880 total rounds (400 rounds for every single on the inner pair, and 270 rounds for each and every of the outer two pair)
•2× hardpoints for up to 2,000 lb (907 kg) of bombs
•6 or 10× T64 5. in (127 mm) H.V.A.R rockets (P-51D-25, P-51K-10 on)

Text and specifications primarily based on Wikipedia report below the Inventive Commons License for non-profit use.

Connecting Rod Disassembly prior to a bit of a Polish
precision engineering
Image by tudedude
Stuart D10 Twin Steam Engine

Precision engineering
precision engineering
Image by Spanner Dan

Farnborough 2014 Airshow Report

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Montblanc Boutique in the Yorkdale Mall, Toronto, Ontario – 117

Image by antefixus21
Montblanc Wrist Watch wall show case.

Chronograph – Nicholas Rieussec time piece.

Swiss produced.

Montblanc Nicolas Rieussec Chronograph Automatic Watch Evaluation
WRIST TIME Testimonials

This watch review is going to be a bit diverse than how I usually do them. Why? Simply because shortly before the overview I was really in a position to visit the manufacture creating the movements of this watch. That experience presented me some special insight that permitted me to recognize this timepiece more.
I know there is a lot of speak on the &quotmanufacture&quot movement. In truth, a current panel discussion I had with fellow watch professional journalists permitted me to understand that there is no strict definition of &quotwatch manufacture&quot or &quotmanufacture movement.&quot This definitional ambiguity hurts my capability to explain things appropriately, but let it be stated that Montblanc makes the movement in each and every of the Nicolas Rieussec watches themselves. Of course there is some aid from suppliers, but this is about as &quotin-residence&quot a job as most folks want it to be. My understanding is that the elements of the movements are produced at the Valfleurier facility in Buttes Switzerland. The pieces are then sent to Montblanc Le Locle for assembly and testing.

What fascinated me most about the Montblanc manufacture in Le Locle Switzerland was just how contemporary it was. I mean it is true that several watch manufactures really feel like you are in some combo of a hospital and science lab, but the machinery accessible to the watch makers at the Le Locle facility was impressive. I have a larger function length write-up on this subject that will come out quickly – but in brief, when it comes to the Nicolas Rieussec line of timepieces, Montblanc relies on a clever environment that combines the human strategy of watch makers with the precision assistance of machines.

A few example of this synergy between man (or lady) and machine? Here are two. One of the photos here is of a machine that robotically applies lubricant to designated spots in a watch. Such lubricant have to be precisely applied with an exact amount. The much more consistently applied the far better. Even though a human assembles the movement, a robot is used to apply the lubricant better and with more precision in terms of amount than any human can do regularly. Another instance is a machine that allows a watch maker to adjust the screws on a balance wheel and test the accuracy of the rate in genuine time. Fundamentally the machine combines a magnifier, computer controlled screw driver, and a watch movement rate tester in 1. Although it is operated by a particular person, the machine makes it straightforward to adjust a conventional weighted balance wheel to its most precise weight distribution in the escapement assembly.

A single of my favorite pictures right here that illustrates the culture of the manufacture is the image of the watch tools with the pc mouse. If you appear closely you will also notice the presence of a Montblanc pen. Every single perform station provides watchmakers a computer terminal as effectively as watch generating tools. Even though I have observed this ahead of, it undoubtedly isn’t common.

With their movements all created in Switzerland by Montblanc, the Nicolas Rieussec collection at the moment consists of a couple of watches. My principal focus right here is on the Automatic Chronograph that also has a GMT and date complication (that I tested). The movement is known as the R200. The two manually wound variants (with slightly diverse functions) are the R100, R110, and R120 (a restricted edition that employed a silicium escapement). I am not going to go overboard with technical information, but the movements represent an exciting medium among the ultra-higher end, and mass manufactured pieces.

The R200 has a lot of impressive characteristics on paper. Notable to the watch nerd is that it has a column wheel primarily based chronograph that uses a vertical clutch. These functions offer you far more durability and precision when making use of the chronograph. There are quite few European chronographs that feature each of these functions. I should also note that some of Seiko’s greater-finish chronograph movements also function column wheels and vertical clutches, as do pieces by brands such as Patek Philippe and (the former) Daniel Roth. Why all the focus on the chronograph? Properly that is the new signature complication of Montblanc. The brand latched on to the complication for very good explanation (as effectively as to Mr. Nicolas Rieussec). &quotChronograph&quot literally means &quottime writer.&quot What is Montblanc recognized for? Yes, making pens. Sound as well very good to be correct to have a watch in your collection that is a &quottime writer?&quot So the emphasis on this complication make best sense. Nicolas Rieussec is guy credited with &quotinventing the chronograph.&quot Montblanc adopted him.

A whilst ago Rieussec developed a device that looks like an early seismograph. It was a clock with a stop and start function that pulled a disc of paper along a smaller sized writing tip. This device was the very first recognized &quotchronograph.&quot It was meant to measure time in horse races and actually &quotwrote.&quot The look of the chronograph on the watch is taken from this early device. Montblanc keeps replicas of them about the manufacture for inspiration. Each and every Nicolas Rieussec watch makes use of two discs that move along stationary hands to show the chronograph time (up to 30 minutes). These are also monopusher chronographs that use a single pusher to cycle by means of &quotstart, quit, and reset&quot functions for the chronograph. The pusher is large, straightforward to locate, and placed at the 5 o’clock position on the watch. Don’t miss the exposed synthetic palette rubies exposed on the top of the chronograph dials.

This chronograph style is the signature look of the Nicolas Rieussec collection. The time is displayed on an off-centered dial at the top of the face. While tiny, Montblanc genuinely helped that dial standout and be legible. It uses that fancy searching font that you’ll locate on most Montblanc Star watches. I genuinely do enjoy that font.

On the manually-wound versions of the Nicolas Rieussec, the time dial has a third hand employed for the date. On the automatic, the third had is GMT hand. Functioning just like you would assume, the main time hour hand can be independently adjusted to alter the time when moving via time zones when traveling. To the left of the dial is a day/night indicator linked to the GMT hand. This useful complication support you know if it is day or evening on your second timezone offered that it is displayed on the 12, versus 24 hour scale. Who’d a even though this would turn out to be such a valuable travel watch? Both time zones share the minute hand. I was generally impressed by the GMT functionality of the watch and feels that the R200 movement’s use of the third hand is much better than getting it be a date indicator.

Even though the left of the dial has the day/evening indicator, the proper has a date wheel. For symmetry Montblanc uses a window of a similar shape, but I do not a lot care for &quotopen&quot date windows. It also does not appear spectacular with the upper and decrease date being partially under the dial – although that does in fact aid with maintaining your focus on the actual date. Although the windows that flank the time dial appear nice, I have a feeling Montblanc might work to revise or polish the style in future generations of the watch.

Coming in a few tones, the dial of the Montblanc Nicolas Rieussec is an intriguing creature. It took me a even though to warm up to it, but I am enjoying the design and style. Although totally different than other collection Montblanc provides, the Nicolas Rieussec does share the brand’s DNA nicely. Of course the crown has that beautiful white Montblanc star, and the case is extremely significantly inspired by the Star collection. To develop visual depth, the energy element of the dial is partially &quoteclipsed&quot by a plate of Geneva stripe polished metal – plus, the dial looks to be produced up of a few layers. The chronograph dials are covered with a sort of want-bone like bridge that uses blued steel screws (blued steel is also utilized for some of the hands). This is a nice element, but I had one particular suggestion for Montblanc. While this may boost the price a bit, I consider it would be truly welcome. The bridge is produced from stamped steel. What if it could be made from milled and hand-polished steel? It would supply a great visual cue and reminder that this is a hand-assembled watch. Probably in the future.

Let’s pay a visit to the R200 movement again. It is an automatic version of the R100 with a couple of addition complications (as described above). You can see the rotor placed over the movement, with the modest Montblanc star shaped hole that is made to pass proper over the column wheel opening window. The movement has two mainspring barrels for a power reserve of 72 hours. The movement operates at 28,800bmp and can be adjusted to be really accurate. I saw a movement at the manufacture that was adjusted to operate within much less than a single second of deviation a day. I adore that the movement combines contemporary technology and traditionalism. Like I stated, it utilizes a cost-free-weighted balance spring and column wheel, enjoys aids from highly sophisticated machinery in its assembly and manufacture.

The Nicolas Rieussec watch case is 43mm wide and 14.8mm tall. It is not a modest watch, but it does wear like a medium one particular. Its height is visually lowered by the very curved lugs. Front and rear crystal are sapphire (with the front crystal possessing double AR coating), even though it is water resistant to 30 meters.

Montblanc has assured me that their dedication to the Nicolas Rieussec collection is intense. The collection will acquire far more interest in the future, which is aided by the fact that the watch is a marketing success. 1 of the motives for this is the pricing. Whilst the watches aren’t low-cost they are much more affordable that you’d expect. The pieces come in gold, platinum, and steel. The gold models are in the ,000 range. Not low cost, but Montblanc isn’t asking for ,000. Truly, their platinum version is about ,000 – which in the luxury market is not that a lot for a platinum watch. In steel the watch retails for about ,200. It comes in a steel bracelet or an alligator strap (black or brown). I am told that soon Montblanc will develop a brand new metal bracelet for the Nicolas Rieussec collection.

Overall these are enjoyable watches. The Montblanc identity is a major good, and I appreciate the visual design and functionality of the R200 movement. While special in its looks, this is an straightforward watch to wear day-to-day. Montblanc isn’t making a mere collector’s piece here. Designed to stop boredom but sustain utility the Nicolas Rieussec watch collection is intended for all kinds of watch lovers to worn every day.

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