Nice Machining Engineering photographs

Nice Machining Engineering photographs

Verify out these machining engineering photos:

Image from web page 492 of “Railway and locomotive engineering : a sensible journal of railway motive energy and rolling stock” (1901)
machining engineering
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Identifier: railwaylocomotiv18newy
Title: Railway and locomotive engineering : a practical journal of railway motive power and rolling stock
Year: 1901 (1900s)
Subjects: Railroads Locomotives
Publisher: New York : A. Sinclair Co
Contributing Library: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
Digitizing Sponsor: Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation

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Computer is in a neat folding, leather-cov-ered case. A single side provides formula and dircctionifor use. The other side has a graduated circleupon which turns a graduated card disc. Ctt.r b« Adjusted In a. Momentto Give Result With no Calculation THIS OFFICEPrice. .00 Eetch Model Locomotives and Castingfs Better than ever! Most current N. Y. Cen.Common. High Saddles —Bg Drivers—4 sizes Anything further nice. 4c. instamps for catalog. . S.P. O. Box 2«8. CAn Bl LL. Monllcello, N. Y October, 1905. RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 481 AIR BRAKE MODELS For Self Instruction. WITH CHART. AIK CHAMBHKS CI)I.ORi:il.AI.I, Parts NIIMHKRKI). Improved Portable Boring, Milling andDrilling Machine. Tlic Espcii-Lucas Maclunc Business,of Philadelpliia, has just placed on themarket many improved portable ma- lls range of speeds ctnbraccs every re-(liiisite from the smallest drill to thelargest cutter. The materials are all ofthe extremely ideal, the spindle becoming ofhammered crucible steel 4 ins. in diam-

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SectlonalModel WestinghouseQuick ActionTriple Valve.Cut 14 actual size. Cost.50 post°paJcL Manufactured by W. VAN NAME 360 Evergreen Ave., BROOKLYN, N. Y. imEljmoN SWITCH &ampSIGNAL CO. Consulting and ManufacturingSignal Engineers Automatic Block Signals—Electricand Electro-Pneumatic Interlocking—Electric, Electro-Pneu-matic and Mechanical Electric Train Staff Apparatus General OFFICES AND Operates ATSWISSVALE, PA. DISTRICT OFFICES: New York: 143 Liberty StreetChlca]o: nitnadnock Block5t. Louis : Frisco Developing Patents. QEO. P. WHITTLESEY McQILL BUILOINQ WASMINQTON, D. C. Terms Affordable. Pamphlet Sent

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Engraving machine
machining engineering
Image by brotherlywalks

Nice Higher Precision Engineering images

Nice Higher Precision Engineering images

Check out these higher precision engineering photos:

AF Memorial_Light the Night
high precision engineering
Image by catface3
Air Force Memorial, Washington, DC, on a hill overlooking the Pentagon. Subsequent to Arlington National Cemetery and to Ft Myer, Virginia, exactly where the Wright brothers 1st demonstrated their Flyer for the Army.

&quotThe Memorial itself is 270 feet (82 m) higher and appears to be soaring its array of stainless steel arcs against the sky evokes the image of &quotcontrails of the Air Force Thunderbirds as they peel back in a precision ‘bomb burst’ maneuver.&quot Only three of the 4 contrails are depicted, as the absent fourth evokes the missing man formation traditionally utilised at Air Force funeral fly-overs.&quot
&quotThe spire structure consists of stainless steel plates with high-strength concrete filling the lower 2/3rds of every single spire. The upper third is hollow stainless steel.[six] At the transition amongst concrete and hollow steel portions, dampers are offered to dissipate wind sway power and eradicate the threat of aerodynamic instability. Every single damper consists of a lead ball weighing about a ton each and every, allowed to roll inside a steel box. The structural design of the memorial was completed by engineering.&quot

Nice Rapidly Prototyping pictures

Nice Rapidly Prototyping pictures

Some cool rapidly prototyping images:

fast prototyping
Image by The DEMO Conference
Seed launches Seed Speedy Prototyping Kit in the World wide web of Items market place segment throughout DEMO Fall 2014 at the San Jose Convention Center in San Jose, California, on Thursday, November 20, 2014. Based on Seed technology (utilizing Bluetooth Smart), the Fast Prototyping Kit provides makers a complete spectrum of new characteristics suited for the Web of Issues market place. It makes it possible for connected products to be construct rapidly and effortlessly. For much more data on Seed please go to Complete coverage of DEMO, New Tech Solving Huge Problems, can be found at Photo by Stephen Brashear (

fast prototyping
Image by The DEMO Conference
Seed launches Seed Rapid Prototyping Kit in the Internet of Issues industry segment for the duration of DEMO Fall 2014 at the San Jose Convention Center in San Jose, California, on Thursday, November 20, 2014. Primarily based on Seed technologies (utilizing Bluetooth Smart), the Fast Prototyping Kit offers producers a entire spectrum of new attributes suited for the Net of Items industry. It makes it possible for connected goods to be construct quickly and easily. For much more information on Seed please go to Comprehensive coverage of DEMO, New Tech Solving Massive Problems, can be discovered at Photo by Stephen Brashear (

Nice Cnc Engineering Solutions pictures

Nice Cnc Engineering Solutions pictures

A handful of nice cnc engineering services images I discovered:

Blackened steel stair with stainless treads
cnc engineering services
Image by Caliper Studio
Center stringer comfort stair connects two office floors in Starret Lehigh constructing. Stringer and slab edge assemblies are blackened. Twenty 4 stainless steel treads are welded to the stringer kind a continuous ribbon. 1 1/four&quot diameter handrail posts are continuous bent &quotC&quot shapes that wrap about treds and are welded to stringer. Stair will be delivered to website in one particular piece [24′ extended 3′ wide 3′ tall @ 2000lbs].

Style by Diller Scofidio + Renfro

Detailing, Fabrication and Installation by Caliper Studio. Caliper Studio engaged Eckersley O’Callaghan &amp partners for engineering services.

Nice Prototype Engineering images

Nice Prototype Engineering images

A couple of nice prototype engineering pictures I discovered:

Japanese Tank Sort 95 Ha-Gō (九五式軽戦車 ハ号 Kyugoshiki keisensha Ha-Gō). 1935. Японский танк Тип 95 “Ха-Го”.
prototype engineering
Image by Peer.Gynt
Poklonnaya Gora WWII Museum. Moscow.
Поклонная гора. Москва.

Weight – 7,400 kilograms
Length – four.38 m
Width – 2.06 meters
Height- two.18 meters
Crew – 3

Main armament Type 94 37 mm gun
Secondary armament Type 91 six.5 mm machine gun or 2 x Type 97 7.7 mm machine gun
Engine Mitsubishi NVD 6120 air-cooled diesel 120 hp (89 kW)
Suspension Bell crank
Operational range250 kilometers
Speed 45 km/h (road)

The Kind 95 Ha-Gō (九五式軽戦車 ハ号 Kyugoshiki keisensha Ha-Gō?) (also recognized as the Type 97 Ke-Go) was a light tank employed by the Imperial Japanese Army in combat operations of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Second Globe War. Despite the fact that it was quite slow for a light tank, it proved sufficient against opposing infantry in campaigns in Manchuria and China, as the Chinese National Revolutionary Army had very handful of tanks or anti-tank weapons to oppose them. However, the Kind 95 lacked the armor or armament of contemporary Allied tanks, and was regarded as obsolete by the begin of World War II. Much more than 2,000 units were produced. It was also employed by Imperial Japanese Navy SNLF detachments in Pacific locations during conflict.
History and improvement

From early 1930s, the Japanese army began experimenting on a mechanized warfare unit combining infantry with tanks. Nevertheless, the Variety 89 Medium tank could not maintain pace with the motorized infantry, which could move at 40 km/h by truck. To resolve this issue, the Army Technical Bureau proposed a new light tank at 40 km/h speed and began development in 1933. The prototype of the new tank was completed in 1934 at the Army’s Sagami Arsenal. It was a higher-speed and lightly-armored tank comparable to the British cruiser tank or Soviet BT tank. Its code name was &quotHa-Gō&quot (ハ号) designated that it was the &quotthird variety&quot of tank developed.[three]

In 1935, a meeting was held at the Army Technical Bureau, at which time, the Sort 95 was presented as a potential principal battle tank for mechanized infantry units. The infantry had issues that the armor was not thick sufficient for sufficient infantry support nonetheless, the cavalry indicated that the improved speed and armaments compensated for this thin armor. In the end, the infantry agreed, as the Kind 95 was nevertheless superior to the only offered option, which was the armored car.

Production was started in 1935 by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. By 1939, 100 units had been constructed. Mitsubishi would go on to create a total of 853 in their personal factories, with yet another 1250 units constructed by the Sagami Arsenal, Hitachi Industries, Niigata Tekkoshō, Kobe Seikoshō, and Kokura Arsenal.[two]

Type 95 Ha-Go tanks in New Britain following the Japanese surrender

Variety 95 on show at the United States Army Ordnance Museum, front view

Correct side view.

Type 95 at Tarawa

The Type 95 was a major improvement more than the Japanese Army’s prior light tanks and tankettes, but was soon involved in an intensive plan to make enhanced variants such as the Manshū model (Type M), the Ha-Gō’s direct descendant. Sort M was technically identical but created for use in the Kwantung Army’s tank schools in Manchukuo and it was planned to be provided in far far more numbers to future Manchukuo Imperial Army armored units and was projected to be manufactured in that country.

One more improvement was the Kind 98 Ke-Ni light tank that entered production in 1942 of which 200 autos had been constructed. This derivitative was better armored and carried an armament comprising one particular Variety 100 37 mm gun and two 7.7 mm machine guns.

The Kind 95 also served as the basis of the Type 2 Ka-Mi amphibious tank which gave good service in Japan’s early campaigns of Globe War II.

Design and style

The Type 95 was a 7.4-ton vehicle with a complement of 3 crewmen (normally a commander/gunner/loader, mechanic/bow machine gunner, and a driver).

The main armament was one particular Sort 94 37 mm Tank Gun with 37 mm caliber, barrel length of 1.3585 meters (L36.7) (early model), 1.358 meters (L36.7) (late model), el angle of fire -15 to +20 degrees (early model), -15 to +20 degrees (late model), AZ angle of fire of 20 degrees (early model) 20 degrees (late model), muzzle velocity: 600 m/s (early model), 700 m/s (late model), penetration: 45 mm/300 m (early model) 25 mm/500 m (late model) utilized by the Kind 95 Light Tank. The commander was accountable for loading, aiming, and firing the primary gun, The Kind 95 tank carried two sorts of ammunition, Kind 94 high-explosive and Type 94 armor-piercing.

Secondary armament consisted as two Type 91 six.5mm machine guns, 1 mounted in the hull and the other in the turret facing to the rear. Trial use in Manchukuo and China confirmed that much better armament was desirable and the 6.5mm machine guns had been exchanged for more powerful 7.7mm Sort 97 light machine guns on the appropriate hand side, for use by the currently overworked commander/gunner in 1941. The original Type 94 major gun was also replaced with a Kind 98 weapon of the identical caliber but with a larger muzzle velocity.

The hand-operated turret was little and very cramped for even the one particular crewman normally located there (the commander), and was only becoming able to rotate in a 45 degree forward arc, leaving the back to be covered by the rear-facing machine gun which failed to compensate for this significant disadvantage.

The most characteristic feature of the Kind 95 tank was its simple suspension system. The tracks had been driven through the front sprocket. Two bogie wheels have been suspended on a single bell crank with two bell cranks per side. There had been two return wheels. The suspension had troubles early on with a tendency to pitch so badly on rough ground that the crew at times located it impossible to drive at any speed, and so it was modified with a brace to connect the pairs of bogies. Despite this, the tank continued to give its users a rough ride across any uneven ground, and was provided with an interior layer of asbestos, valuable in reducing interior heat and defending the crew from injury when the tank moved at high speed across rough terrain.[3]

This initial production models employed one particular 110 hp (82 kW) Mitsubishi air cooled diesel engine with a leading speed of 25 mph (40 km/h). This was the exact same engine that equipped the Kind 89 I-Go medium tank. Later the much more potent engine Mitsubishi NVD 6120 with 120 hp (89.five kW) was installed.[3] Some Variety 95 had been fitted with two reflectors in the front of the automobile for night operations.


Type 95 tank in Bovington tank museum, Dorset

Type 95 on show at the Battery Randolf US Army Museum, Honolulu, top rear view

Kind 95 Ha-Go tanks destroyed by an Australian two pounder gun in the Battle of Muar

A single of six Ha-Go tanks destroyed by an Australian 2 pounder gun in the Battle of Muar. The escaping crew had been killed by allied infantry covering the artillery
Kind three Ke-Ri
This was a proposed model with a Type 97 57 mm gun as the principal armament. This design in no way got previous testing in 1943.
Variety 4 Ke-Nu
The Variety 4 Ke-Nu was intended to address one of the most widespread complaints about the Kind 95 from its customers – the cramped turret. The current Sort 95 turret was replaced by the turret of a Kind 97 Medium tank for more space. About 100 units had been made.
Sort 95 Manshū
The Kind 95 Manshū was an operational and training tank derived from and really comparable to the Kind 95 Ha-Gō. These tanks were detached to Manchukuo and belonged to the instruction unit of the Kwantung Army tank college.
Variety 95 &quotTa-Se&quot Anti-Aircraft Tank
An experimental car known as &quotTa-Se&quot was built in November 1941, utilizing the chassis of Sort 95 Ha-Gō with a 20 mm anti-aircraft gun taken from the Type 98 20 mm anti-aircraft gun. Another version utilised a Type two 20 mm anti-aircraft gun. Neither model went into production.
Sort 2 Ka-Mi Amphibious Tank
This was the 1st amphibious tank created in Japan, and was intended for use by the Navy’s SNLF. The pontoons could be detached after landing by a fourth crewman from inside the tank. The chassis was primarily based on the Variety 95 Light Tank. The Type 2 Ka-Mi was encountered by the United States Marine Corps in the Marshall Islands and Mariana Islands, especially on Guam, exactly where it was utilized in static defense positions.
Variety 95 &quotRi-Ki&quot Crane Car
The Sort 95 Ri-Ki was an engineering car for field functions. It had a 3-ton 4.five meter boomed crane.
120 mm self-propelled gun &quotHo-To&quot
The Kind 95 Ho-To was a Sort 38 120 mm howitzer mounted on the Sort 95 Ha-Go chassis. The gun was low-velocity but the HEAT shell enabled it to destroy the American M4 Sherman tank. This self-propelled gun was developed along with the Ho-Ru self-propelled gun.
Sort five Ho-Ru 47 mm self-propelled gun
The Ho-Ru was a light tank destroyer equivalent to the German Hetzer. The improvement of the Sort five Ho-Ru started in February 1945. The Variety five Ho-Ru utilized the chassis of the Variety 95 Light Tank, but its suspension was enlarged to 350 mm track hyperlink width. The wheel guide pins had been set in two rows to hold a road wheel among them. The sprocket of the driving wheel was the grating variety to gear with the wheel guide pins like on the Soviet T-34. It was armed with one particular 47 mm primary gun.
Variety 98 Ke-Ni light tank
This final modification was somewhat lighter than the original Variety 95, even with its heavier (.62 inch) armor. It entered production in 1942, but only about 200 were manufactured.

Combat history

When the Kind 95 entered service in 1935 it was a capable machine and comparable to any contemporary light tank in the globe. It was the very best car of its category offered to the Japanese forces in any numbers from the 1930s to World War II, and was utilised mostly to assistance infantry or as cavalry reconnaissance and, to a lesser extent, as raiding cars. It could compete with the American M3 light tanks on the Philippines, while the British had really couple of tanks of any kind in Malaya or Burma in December 1941. [4]

The Variety 95 Ha-Gō proved moderately successful for the duration of the early campaigns of late 1941 and early 1942, when Japanese forces overran British Malaya and seized the fortress city of Singapore. A single important to the Japanese good results in Malaya was the unexpected presence of their tanks in places exactly where the British did not believe tanks could be employed. The wet jungle terrain did not turn out to be an obstacle twelve Kind 95s took part in the attack which broke the Jitra line on 11 December 1941.

The very first tank-vs-tank battles of the war was on 22 December 1941 for the duration of the Japanese invasion of the Philippines. Variety 95s of the 4th Tank Regiment clashed with M3s of the American 192nd Tank Battalion. Both tanks had been armed with a 37 mm gun, and the M3 was better armored nevertheless, the inexperienced American commanders failed to make good use of their tanks.

Two Variety 95 tanks were deployed to assistance the Japanese landing at Milne Bay, late August 1942. Initially, the tanks proved successful against the lightly armed Australian infantry, whose ‘sticky bombs’ failed to stick due to the humidity. Even though the tanks had proved trustworthy in the tropical circumstances of Malaya, they could not deal with the volume of mud brought on by intense, virtually everyday rainfall at Milne Bay. Each tanks had been bogged down and abandoned a handful of days right after the landing.

The Sort 95 very first began to show its vulnerability in the course of later battles against British/Commonwealth forces, where the tank’s 37mm gun could not penetrate the armor of the British Matilda tanks which have been deployed against them. The thin armor of the Variety 95 made it increasingly vulnerable as Allied forces realized that common infantry weapons have been capable of penetrating the minimal armor about the engine block, and even its thickest armor could not withstand anything above rifle caliber. Its firepower was insufficient to take on other tanks such as the medium M4 Sherman or the M3 Stuart light tanks. [4]

As the tide of the war turned against Japan, the Sort 95s had been escalating expended in banzai charges or were dug-in as pillboxes in static defense positions in the Japanese-occupied islands. During the Battle of Tarawa, seven entrenched Type 95th opposed American landings. More have been destroyed on Parry Island and on Eniwetok. On Saipan, Sort 95s attacked the American Marine beachhead on 16 June 1944 and much more were utilized in the largest tank battle in the Pacific the following day.

In the Battle of Guam on 21 July, ten Kind 95 had been lost to bazooka fire or M4 tanks. Seven a lot more had been destroyed on Tinian on 24 July, and 15 much more on Battle of Peleliu on 15 September. Likewise, in the Philippines, at least ten Variety 95s have been destroyed in various engagements on Leyte, and yet another 19 on Luzon. At the Battle of Okinawa, 13 Type 95s and 14 Type 97 Shihoto medium tanks of the 27th Tank Regiment faced 800 American tanks.

When the war ended hundreds of Type 95s have been left in China. They had been used for the duration of the Chinese Civil War and by the People’s Liberation Army of the People’s Republic of China throughout the Korean War.

Soviet Higher-Speed Tank BT-two. Советский быстроходный танк БТ-two.
prototype engineering
Image by Peer.Gynt
The BT tanks (Russian: Быстроходный танк (БТ), Bystrokhodny tank, lit. &quotfast tank&quot or &quothigh-speed tank&quot) were a series of Soviet cavalry tanks produced in big numbers in between 1932 and 1941. They have been lightly armoured, but reasonably nicely-armed for their time, and had the best mobility of all modern tanks of the planet. The BT tanks have been known by the nickname Betka from the acronym, or its diminutive Betushka.

The direct successor of the BT tanks would be the well-known T-34 medium tank, introduced in 1940, which would replace all of the Soviet quick tanks, infantry tanks, and medium tanks in service.
Design and style

The BT tanks had been &quotconvertible tanks&quot. This was a function made by J. Walter Christie to decrease put on of the unreliable tank tracks of the 1930s. In about thirty minutes the crew could get rid of the tracks and engage a chain drive to the rearmost road wheel on each side, enabling the tank to travel at very higher speeds on roads. In wheeled mode the tank was steered by pivoting the front road wheels. Even so, Soviet tank forces soon discovered the convertible selection of little practical use in a country with handful of paved roads, and it consumed space and added needless complexity and weight. The feature was dropped from later Soviet styles.

Christie, a race vehicle mechanic[citation needed] from New Jersey, had tried unsuccessfully to convince the U.S. Army Ordnance Bureau to adopt his Christie tank style. In 1930, Soviet agents at Amtorg, ostensibly a Soviet trade organization, utilized their New York political contacts to persuade U.S. military and civilian officials to give plans and specifications of the Christie tank to the Soviet Union. At least two of Christie’s M1931 tanks (without having turrets) had been later bought in the United States and sent to the Soviet Union below false documentation in which they have been described as &quotagricultural tractors.&quot[citation necessary] Both tanks were effectively delivered to the Kharkov Komintern Locomotive Plant (KhPZ). The original Christie tanks have been designated quick tanks by the Soviets, abbreviated BT (later referred to as BT-1). Based both on them and on previously obtained plans, three unarmed BT-two prototypes have been completed in October 1931 and mass production started in 1932. Most BT-2s have been equipped with a 37 mm gun and a machine gun, but shortages of 37 mm guns led to some early examples getting fitted with three machine guns.

The sloping front hull (glacis plate) armor design and style of the Christie M1931 prototype was retained in later Soviet tank hull styles, later adopted for side armor as properly.

The BT-five and later models were equipped with a 45 mm gun.

BT-1: Christie prototype with no turret.
BT-two Model 1932: M-five-400 engine (copy of U.S. Liberty engine), 3 modifications of turret produced: with single 37 mm gun 37 mm gun and 1 DT machine gun twin DP machine guns mount and a single machine gun. In late 1932 modified to BT-three but created beneath identical designation.
BT-3: exact same as BT-2, developed according to metric program (rather of Imperial system as employed for BT-two). In official documentation referred to as BT-2.
BT-four: was a design and style with welded hull and minor modifications in the suspension. 3 prototypes made (with partially riveted hull)
BT-five: bigger cylindrical turret, 45 mm gun, coaxial DT machine gun. BT-five Model 1933: new turret with twin hatches and larger bustle.
BT-5PKh: snorkelling variant (prototypes only).
BT-5A: artillery assistance version with 76.two mm howitzer (few made).
BT-five flamethrower tank: (prototypes only).
PT-1A: amphibious variant with new hull (couple of made).

BT-7 Model 1935: welded hull, redesigned hull front, new Mikulin M-17T engine (licensed copy of a BMW engine), enclosed muffler. BT-7 Model 1937: new turret with sloping armour.
BT-7TU: command version, with whip antenna rather of earlier frame antenna.
BT-7A: artillery assistance version with 76.2 mm howitzer.
OP-7: flame-thrower version with external fuel panniers (prototype only).

BT-7M[3] (1938, prototypes designated A-eight sometimes referred to as BT-8): new V-two diesel engine replacing earlier gasoline engines, 3 DT machine guns: coaxial, in P-40 AA mount on roof and in a ball-mount on turret rear.
BT-42: Finnish assault gun captured BT-7s had been equipped with British 114 mm howitzers.
BT-43: Finnish armoured personnel carrier captured BT-7s equipped with troop accommodation.
BT-IS: Prototype/proof-of-idea platform with heavily sloped armor forerunner of the armor style on the T-34.
BT-SW-2 Cherepakha (&quotturtle&quot): Yet another prototype, which took the armour sloping to an intense.
A-20: Prototype for a new BT tank, with 20 mm armour, 45mm gun, model V-2 diesel engine, and 8×6-wheel convertible drive. Lost out in trials to the A-32, which was further enhanced and produced as the T-34 medium tank.
TTBT-five, TTBT-7: teletanks, remote-controlled tanks.

Combat history

BT tanks saw service in the Spanish Civil War, Battle of Khalkhin Gol (Nomonhan), the Winter War in Finland, the Polish campaign, and in the whole Globe War II.
They first saw action in the Spanish Civil War. A battalion of BT-5s fought on the Republican side, and their 45 mm guns could easily knock out the opposing German and Italian light tanks
Battle of Khalkhin Gol (Nomonhan)
See also: Soviet–Japanese Border Wars
For the duration of the Battles of Khalkhin Gol (also identified as the Nomonhan Incident), which lasted from May possibly to September in 1939, BT tanks have been simply attacked by Japanese &quotclose quarter&quot teams (tank killer squads) which had been armed with petrol bottles (later named &quotMolotov Cocktails&quot). The Soviet BT-five and BT-7 light tanks, which had been operating in temperatures higher than 100F on the Mongolian plains, effortlessly caught fire when a molotov cocktail ignited their gasoline engines.Basic Georgy Zhukov produced it a single of his &quotpoints&quot when briefing Joseph Stalin, that his &quot…BT tanks were a bit fireprone….&quot Conversely, numerous Japanese tankers held the Soviet 45mm anti-tank/tank guns in high esteem, noting, &quot…no sooner did they see the flash from a Russian gun, than they’d notice a hole in their tank, adding that the Soviet gunners were accurate as well!&quot
Right after the Khalkhin Gol War in 1939, the Soviet military had broken into two camps one particular side was represented by Spanish Civil War veterans Common P. V. Rychagov of the Soviet Air Force, Soviet armour expert Common Dimitry Pavlov, and Stalin’s favourite, Marshal Grigory Kulik, Chief of Artillery Administration.[16] The other side consisted of the Khalkhin Gol veterans led by Generals Zhukov and G.P. Kravchenko of the Soviet Air Force.[17] Beneath this cloud of division, the lessons of Russia’s &quotfirst real war on a huge scale using tanks, artillery, and airplanes&quot at Nomonhan (Khalkhin Gol) went unheeded. Consequently, for the duration of the Finland War (Winter War) the BT-two and BT-5 tanks were less profitable, and it took the Soviet Union 3 and a half months, and more than a million males to do what Zhukov did in just ten days at Nomonhan.
Following the German war broke out, the Spanish Civil War faction fell in disfavor, with Marshal Kulik in specific getting court-martialed and demoted. Gen. Zhukov and the majority of his surviving Nomonhan veterans were appointed to commands throughout European Russia, in time to engage the German armies.
Globe War II
Throughout the Second World War, BT-5 and BT-7 tanks have been utilized in the 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland, and in large numbers in the battles of 1941 – in the course of which thousands had been abandoned or destroyed. A handful of remained in use in 1942, but were uncommon following that time. The Red Army planned to replace the BT tank series with the T-34, and had just begun doing so when the German invasion (Operation Barbarossa) took location.
In the course of the final weeks of World War II, a significant quantity of BT-7 tanks took element in the invasion of Japanese-occupied Manchuria, in August 1945. This was the last combat action of BT tanks.
Technical legacy

The BT tank series was several, forming the cavalry tank arm of the Red Army in the 1930s, and had significantly better mobility than other contemporary tank designs. For these reasons, there had been several experiments and derivatives of the design and style, largely carried out at the KhPZ factory in Kharkov.
The most important legacy of the BT tank was the T-34 medium tank, arguably the most essential tank of the entire World War II. In 1937, a new design and style team was formed at the KhPZ to create the subsequent generation of BT tanks. Initially, the chief designer was Mikhail Koshkin and, following his death, Morozov. The group constructed two prototypes. The light one particular was called the A-20. The much more heavily armed and armoured BT derivative, the A-32, was a &quotuniversal tank&quot to replace all the T-26 infantry tank, BT cavalry tanks, and the T-28 medium tanks. Such plan was controversial, but issues about tank overall performance beneath the threat of German blitzkrieg led to the approval for production of a nevertheless more heavily-armoured version, the T-34 medium tank.
Along the way, an essential technical development was the BT-IS and BT-SW-2 testbed automobiles, concentrating on sloped armour. This proof-of-concept led straight to the armour layout of the T-34.
BT tank chassis have been also used as the basis for engineering assistance autos and mobility testbeds. A bridgelayer variant had a T-38 turret and launched a bridge across modest gaps. Normal tanks have been fitted as fascine carriers. The RBT-5 hosted a pair of large artillery rocket launchers, a single on every single side of the turret. Many designs for incredibly wide tracks, like, oddly, wooden ‘snowshoes’ had been attempted on BT tanks.
The KBT-7 was a completely modern day armoured command automobile that was in the prototype stage when Planet War II broke out. The design and style was not pursued for the duration of the war.
In the Kiev maneuvers of 1936, foreign military observers have been shown hundreds of BT tanks roll by a reviewing stand. In the audience had been British Army representatives, who returned residence to advocate for use of Christie suspension on British cruiser tanks which they incorporated from the Cruiser Mk III onwards. Interestingly, the pointed shape of the hull front armor on the BT tank also influenced the design of the British Matilda tank.

Nice Higher Precision Engineering photographs

Nice Higher Precision Engineering photographs

A handful of nice high precision engineering photos I identified:

Image from page 240 of “The Bell System technical journal” (1922)
high precision engineering
Image by Net Archive Book Photos
Identifier: bellsystemtechni16amerrich
Title: The Bell Program technical journal
Year: 1922 (1920s)
Authors: American Telephone and Telegraph Company
Subjects: Telecommunication Electric engineering Communication Electronics Science Technologies
Publisher: [Quick Hills, N.J., and so on., American Phone and Telegraph Co.]
Contributing Library: Prelinger Library
Digitizing Sponsor: World wide web Archive

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an addi-tional 60-turn winding was used for checking the measurements in thelow-frequency variety. In either case the inductance was low enoughto depress any effect of distributed capacitance far below the precisionof the measurements. Measurements have been produced on a ten-ohm equal ratio arm inductance MAGNETIC LOSSES AT LOW FLUX DENSITIES 217 comparison bridge,^ and were verified at low frequencies employing a 1-ohmratio arm bridge. Calibration of the bridge and common coils wasefifected by creating measurements over the whole frequency range on acalibrated higher good quality air core coil substituted for the test coil. Themaximum correction essential on this account was about .1per cent of the resistance due to the magnetic core. The supply of alternating present was an oscillator-amplifier supply-ing approximately .four watt undistorted energy, calibrated for thesemeasurements against the Laboratories standard frequency. Thecurrent was adjusted by the insertion of resistance in series with the

Text Appearing Following Image:
5 6 7 eight 9 H IN OERSTEADS X ten^ Fig. 2—Core permeability as measured by the ballistic galvanometer. main of the bridge input transformer, and was measured by meansof a thermocouple amongst the transformer secondary and the bridge.The bridge unbalance was amplified by signifies of an impedancecoupled amplifier for the 10-ohm bridge, and by indicates of a resistancecoupled amplifier for the 1-ohm bridge. The amplified unbalance wasobserved by means of head phones at frequencies above 200 cycles, andby means of a vibration galvanometer at lower frequencies. The d.-c.balance required bridge current of about 3 m.a. in the test coil winding,and had the identical precision as the a.-c. balance, viz., db .0002 ohm.The inductance readings had been corrected for the air space within thewinding, and had a relative accuracy of about .03 per cent, and anabsolute accuracy of around .1 per cent. 218 BELL Method TECHNICAL JOURNAL D.-C. Final results The permeability n = BmjHm of the specimen is shown as a enjoyable

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned web page photos that might have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may possibly not perfectly resemble the original operate.

Boeing B-17 – Duxford Airshow Oct 2010
high precision engineering
Image by Feggy Art
Boeing B-17 at Duxford Airshow October 2010.

The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress was a four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC). Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to develop 200 bombers, the Boeing entry outperformed each competitors and a lot more than met the Air Corps’ expectations. Though Boeing lost the contract because the prototype crashed, the Air Corps was so impressed with Boeing’s style that they ordered 13 much more B-17s for additional evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through numerous style advances.

The B-17 was primarily employed by the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) in the daylight precision strategic bombing campaign of Planet War II against German industrial and military targets. The United States Eighth Air Force primarily based at Thorpe Abbotts airfield in England and the Fifteenth Air Force primarily based in Italy complemented the RAF Bomber Command’s evening time area bombing in Operation Pointblank to assist safe air superiority more than the cities, factories and battlefields of Western Europe in preparation for Operation Overlord. The B-17 also participated to a lesser extent in the War in the Pacific exactly where it carried out raids against Japanese shipping and airfields.

From its pre-war inception, the USAAC (later USAAF) touted the aircraft as a strategic weapon it was a potent, high-flying, extended-variety bomber that was capable to defend itself, and to return house despite comprehensive battle harm. It rapidly took on mythic proportions, and widely circulated stories and photographs of B-17s surviving battle damage increased its iconic status. With a service ceiling higher than any of its Allied contemporaries, the B-17 established itself as an effective weapons system, dropping more bombs than any other U.S. aircraft in Planet War II. Of the 1.5 million metric tons of bombs dropped on Germany by U.S. aircraft, 640,000 tons had been dropped from B-17s.

Common characteristics

•Crew: 10: Pilot, co-pilot, navigator, bombardier/nose gunner, flight engineer-best turret gunner, radio operator, waist gunners (2), ball turret gunner, tail gunner
•Length: 74 ft four in (22.66 m)
•Wingspan: 103 ft 9 in (31.62 m)
•Height: 19 ft 1 in (5.82 m)
•Wing area: 1,420 sq ft (131.92 m2)
•Airfoil: NACA 0018 / NACA 0010
•Aspect ratio: 7.57
•Empty weight: 36,135 lb (16,391 kg)
•Loaded weight: 54,000 lb (24,500 kg)
•Max takeoff weight: 65,500 lb (29,700 kg)
•Powerplant: 4× Wright R-1820-97 Cyclone turbo supercharged radial engines, 1,200 hp (895 kW) each and every

Overall performance

•Maximum speed: 287 mph (249 kn, 462 km/h)
•Cruise speed: 182 mph (158 kn, 293 km/h)
•Range: 2,000 mi (1,738 nmi, 3,219 km) with two,700 kg (six,000 lb) bombload
•Service ceiling: 35,600 ft (ten,850 m)
•Rate of climb: 900 ft/min (four.six m/s)
•Wing loading: 38. lb/sq ft (185.7 kg/m2)
•Power/mass: .089 hp/lb (150 W/kg)


•Guns: 13 × .50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns in 4 turrets in dorsal, ventral, nose and tail, 2 in waist positions, two beside cockpit and 1 in the reduce dorsal position
•Short range missions (&lt400 mi): 8,000 lb (three,600 kg)
•Long variety missions (≈800 mi): four,500 lb (two,000 kg)
•Overload: 17,600 lb (7,800 kg)

Text and specifications based on Wikipedia write-up below the Inventive Commons License for non-profit use.

This is the Boeing B17G-105-VE Flying Fortress 124485 G-BEDF (Memphis Belle)

Nice Precision Engineering Companies photographs

Nice Precision Engineering Companies photographs

A few nice precision engineering companies images I found:

Band of Brothers: The La Fiere Bridge over the Merderet River
precision engineering companies
Image by Dog Company
This isn’t an Easy Company 506th site, but this set is dedicated to all of the paratroopers, and I think you’ll be interested in this.

In this picture, I’m standing on the La Fiere Bridge over the Merderet River, about 1-2 km west of Ste Mere Eglise. On D-Day, this field was flooded. The Germans had jammed the lock on a dam to flood a lot of fields that were potential airborne landing site.

One thing I learned about the consequence is visible in this picture. If you were a paratrooper and you landed in that field, you were in about three feet of water. If you landed in the river, you were in over your head. I read the account of one trooper who landed in the river and had to use his Mae West life preserver to surface. Then as he gasped for air, he had to cut himself out of his harness with his knife, then was able to drag himself to safety. Another account I read was about a trooper who landed in this field, and wind gusts blew him, face down (so he was drowning) across the field until he was able to turn over and get out of his chute.

The Germans were massed to the left of the river, and a small contingent of men from the 82nd Airborne and the 505th of the 101st formed a defense on the right side. They were there for one job: prevent the Germans from counterattacking with armor across the Merderet and hitting the paratroops from their left flank (Ste Mere Eglise would have been totally exposed if they didn’t hold this bridge. At first, they had rifles, carbines and a light mortar, and then they got more equipment. Here are some downloads I clipped from the internet to illustrate

La Fiere Bridge: D-Day June 6, 1944
Around 1:00 a.m. on June 6, 1944, Marcus Heim jumped out of a C-47 transport plane over Normandy, France. Heim was part of A Company, 505, their specific objective was to seize and hold the La Fiere Bridge over the Merderet River until reinforcements from the amphibious portion of the Allied invasion arrived.
"In all of the airborne operations of the ETO, the Merderet Bridgehead was the one attended by the greatest difficulty and hardships of the individual assemblies … these conditions so frequently brought forth the finest characteristics of the American soldier." – S L A Marshall

Enclosed are Marcus Heim’s recollections of June 6. That day, their small four-man team set up a roadblock next to the La Fiere Bridge and was responsible for repelling several powerful German counter attacks.

I landed about twenty-five feet from a road and before I could get my rifle assembled, I heard a motorcycle approaching. I remained still as I did not have time to assemble my rifle, and watched two German soldiers pass by. After they passed and I had my rifle together I found other paratroopers and our equipment bundle and set off for the bridge over the Merderet River. We were to hold the bridge until the soldiers who landed on the beach arrived later that day, but it was three days before they reached our position.
As you stand at the La Fiere Bridge looking in the direction of Ste Mere- Eglise, the Manor House is on the right and was the living quarters. There were several buildings, one a large barn, which was close to the Merderet River. The Germans had occupied the Manor House and were driven out by "A" Company, 505, after heavy fighting. As you pass the Manor House toward Ste Mere-Eglise, the road goes up hill and curves to the left. Across from the Manor House there was a pathway which was about four feet wide and now is a causeway was narrow and had brush and trees on each side, some hung over the causeway. The fields were completely flooded right up to the causeway. The town on Cauquigny was about 800 to 900 yards from the bridge, and it was in German hands. The causeway curved to the right about 60 or 65 yards from the bridge.

Map of The La Fiere Bridge Head. Heim’s position is near the bottomof the map (U.S. Army).
When we arrived at the bridge, men were placed down the pathway to the right and to the left of the Manor House and out buildings. The four bazooka men included: Lenold Peterson, and myself, John Bolderson and Gordon Pryne. Peterson and I took up positions on the Manor House side facing Cauquigny, below the driveway. There was a concrete telephone pole just in front of us and we dug in behind it. We knew that when the Germans started the attack with their tanks, we would have to get out of our foxhole and reveal our position to get a better view of the tanks. Bolderson and Pryne were on the right side of the road just below the pathway. I do not remember how many paratroopers were around us, all I saw was a machine gun set up in the Manor House yard. On the right side down the pathway a few riflemen took up positions.

There was a 57-millimeter cannon up the road in back of us along with another machine gun. We carried antitank mines and bazooka rockets from the landing area. These mines were placed across the causeway about 50 or 60 feet on the other side of the bridge. There was a broken down German truck by the Manor House, which we pushed and dragged across the bridge and placed it across the causeway. All that afternoon the Germans kept shelling our position, and the rumor was that the Germans were going to counter attack. Around 5:00 in the afternoon the Germans started the attack. Two tanks with infantry on each side and in the rear following them was a third tank with more infantry following it. As the lead tank started around the curve in the road the tank commander stood up in the turret to take a look and from our left the machine gun let loose a burst and killed the commander. At the same time the bazookas, 57 millimeter and everything else we had were firing at the Germans and they in turn were shooting at us with cannons, mortars, machine guns and rifle fire. Lenold Peterson and I (the loader), in the forward position got out of the foxhole and stood behind the telephone pole so we could get a better shot at the tanks. We had to hold our fire until the last minute because some of the tree branches along the causeway were blocking our view. The first tank was hit and started to turn sideways and at the same time was swinging the turret around and firing at us. We had just moved forward around the cement telephone pole when a German shell hit it and we hat to jump out of the way to avoid being hit as it was falling. I was hoping that Bolderson and Pryne were also firing at the tanks for with all that was happening in front of us there was not time to look around to see what others were doing. We kept firing at the first tank until it was put out of action and on fire. The second tank came up and pushed the first tank out of the way. We moved forward toward the second tank and fired at it as fast as I could load the rockets in the bazooka. We kept firing at the second tank and we hit it in the turret where it is connected to the body, also in the track and with another hit it also went up in flames. Peterson and I were almost out of rockets, and the third tank was still moving. Peterson asked me to go back across the road and see if Bolderson had any extra rockets. I ran across the road and with all the crossfire I still find it hard to believe I made it to the other side in one piece. When I got to the other side I found one dead soldier and Bolderson and Pryne were gone. Their bazooka was lying on the ground and it was damaged by what I thought were bullet holes. Not finding Bolderson or Pryne I presumed that either one or both were injured. I found the rockets they left and then had to return across the road to where I left Peterson. The Germans were still firing at us and I was lucky again, I return without being hit. Peterson and I put the new found rockets to use on the third tank. After that one was put out of action the Germans pulled back to Cauquigy and continued shelling us for the rest of the night. They also tried two other counter attacks on our position, which also failed.

During the battles, one does not have time to look around to see how others are doing. We were told that when we took up our position by the bridge that we have to hold it at all cost until the men from the beach arrived, for if the Germans broke through they would have a good chance of going all the way to the beach. Our job was to be in the forward position by the La Fiere Bridge with our bazooka to stop any German tanks from advancing over the bridge and onto Ste Mere-Eglise and the beaches. This we accomplished all the while the Germans were continuously firing everything they had at us. After I went across the road and found more rockets for the bazooka and returned, the third tank was put out of action and the Germans retreated. When the Germans pulled back, we looked around did not see anyone, we than moved back to our foxhole. Looking back up the road toward Ste Mere-Eglise, we saw that the 57-millimeter cannon and the machine gun were destroyed. Looking down the pathway across from the Manor House we could not see any of our men. We were thinking that we were all alone and that maybe we should move from here, then someone came and told us to hold our position and he would find more men to place around us for the Germans may try again to breach our lines. We found out later, of the few that were holding the bridge at this time, most were either killed or wounded. Why we were not injured or killed only the good Lord knows.

Marcus Heim recieves the DSC from General Omar Bradley.
For holding their position and repelling the Germans on June 6, 1944, Heim, Peterson, Bolderson and Pryne were each awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.

The following letter is from John "Red Dog" Dolan, Company Commander of A Company 505 PIR, to General James Gavin. Wriiten in 1959, at the urging of Robert Murphy, the letter provides a very detailed account of A Company’s legendary actions at La Fiere Bridge. General Gavin’s transmittal letter to famed author Cornelius Ryan is also enclosed.

March 15, 1959

Lt. General James N. Gavin
c/o Arthur D. Little, Inc.
30 Memorial Drive
Cambridge, Mass.

Dear General Gavin:

Thank you for your letter of March 10, 1959. It had always been my intention of answering the questionnaire of Cornelius Ryan; but realizing that it would take considerable time to give a detailed and accurate account, I kept putting it aside and then completely forgot about it until Bob Murphy spoke to me about it a few days before receipt of your letter.

I shall try to cover as much detail without making this letter too voluminous, leaving it to your judgment and discretion to delete any portion that you deem unfavorable to the outfit. You may recall that I was in command of Company "A", 505 Parachute Infantry, with the rank of First Lieutenant. The specific mission of the Company "A" was to seize and defend the bridge crossing the Merderet River on the road that ran East to West from Ste. Mere Eglise, with the purpose of preventing the movement of German troops down to the beach-head.

I don’t recall exactly what time the first Battalion jumped but it was between 1:00 and 2:00 a.m. on D-Day. We hit our drop zone right on the nose, because within twenty minutes to one-half hour, I knew our exact location. I was able to identify a "T" intersection, dirt roads 8 to 10 feet wide, near our drop zone. The upper arm of which ran generally east to west, the vertical arm running north to south, to meet the road running from Ste. Mere Eglise to our objective, the bridge at the Merderet River.

We had the usual problems of re-organization in the dark; however, about an hour before dawn, Company "A" moved out from the drop zone with about ninety (90) per cent of the men accounted for. (This was not due to luck alone, but to the cooperation of Officers, Non-Coms, and last but not least, training. Men who have to fight in the night should be trained in nighttime fighting, not just taken on a night march and digging foxholes.) We moved along this dirt road which I previously referred to as being the North-South arm of the "T" intersection, and just around here, I ran into Major McGinity. He moved out with us.

The order of march was first, Co. Headquarters, third and second platoons in that order. When we reached the road running East-West from Ste. Mere Eglise, a German motorcycle passed us going toward Ste. Mere Eglise. At this time, it was still dark, but daylight was starting to break. We crossed the road and started west toward the bridge,with a hedge row to our right between us and the road. Just about this time, contact was lost with the first platoon, so the third platoon took the lead.

About seven to eight hundred yards from the bridge, we came upon a dirt road running southeasterly from the road to the bridge. Hedgerows were on either side of this road; and beyond it in the direction of the bridge, was an open, flat field, about 100 yards deep and about 75 yards wide. It was here that I figured the Germans would defend if they intended a defense of the bridge.

I directed Lt. Donald Coxon to send his scouts out. This he did, and he also went out with them. He had plenty of personal courage but he didn’t have the heart to order them out without going with them.

A few moments later, a German machine gun opened up, killing Lt. Coxon and one of his scouts, Fergueson. Their fire was returned; and, with Major McGinity and myself leading, a few men holding and returning frontal fire, the platoon flanked to the left. At the same time, I directed Lt. Presnell to re-cross the road and attack along the northern side down to the bridge. This was done, and the second platoon didn’t meet with any fire until they arrived at the bridge.

The third platoon continued its flanking move and cut back in toward the road to the bridge. Because of the fire, we calculated that there was just one machine gun crew that was in our way. It later turned out that there must have been at least a squad dug in at this point, with at least two of them armed with machine pistols. Prisoners captured later, in addition to the German dead, amounted to about the size of one of our platoons. There were no German officers captured. I don’t know whether or not any of their enlisted men escaped.

To continue, we cut back toward the road, travelling in a Northerly direction. Major McGinity was leading and I was about three’ or four paces behind, and slightly to the right. There was a high, thick hedgerow to our left, and it was in here that I figured the machine gun was located.

When we had traveled about two-thirds of the way up the hedgerow, they opened up on us with rifle, and at least two machine pistols. I returned the fire with my Thompson Sub-Machine Gun at a point where I could see leaves in the hedgerow fluttering. Major McGinity was killed instantly. As luck would have it, there was a German foxhole to my left which I jumped into and from where I continued to fire I could only guess where to shoot, but I had to as part of the Third platoon was exposed to their fire. Lt. McLaughlin, the assistant platoon leader was wounded and died later that day. His radio operator was also killed the platoon by now was under fire from two directions, from the point where I was pinned down, and also from the direction of the bridge.

I can’t estimate how long we were pinned down in this fashion, but it was at least an hour. I made several attempts to move, but drew their fire. On my last attempt, I drew no fire. They obviously had pulled out. During all of this time, I could hear rifle and machine gunfire down by the bridge on the north side. This ceased about this time I returned to the rest of the third platoon, instructed the Non-Coms to re-organize and to maintain their present position. I then crossed the road and located the first platoon commanded by Lt. Oakley on the north side. They were moving toward the bridge, so I instructed them to continue and dig in on the right side. I went down to the bridge and found that we had received an assist from some of the 508 Prcht. Infantry about this time, I ran into Col. Eckman, and sent for my third platoon to dig in on the left or south side of the bridge. The first was already digging in on the north side.

I thought that all of the Germans had retreated; but unknown to us, there were about ten or twelve Germans holed up on the second floor of a stucco-type farmhouse. At the time they started firing. Col. Eckman and I were casually looking the situation over. It lasted about twenty minutes with about ten or twelve Germans surrendering. About a squad of men from the 508 made the actual capture.

We dug in, the disposition of my Company as follows: First platoon on the north side of the road, the third on the south and the second in reserve, about 4OO yards back, so that it could also protect the rear.

Major Kellam arrived at the bridge with Capt. Roysden, his S-3. He had most of his C.P. unit with him. I don’t know whether or not a Battalion C.P. had ever been set up as planned, at least, I don’t recall having had any communication with it. Down at the bridge now was most of Company "A", about one platoon or Company "B", a platoon of the Division Engineers (mission to blow the bridge if necessary), about half of Battalion Headquarters Company with mortars awl machine gun sections and several stray men from other regiments. The Company dug in well and quickly. I had just completed my inspection of the forward positions when we knew that an attack was coming. You will recall that in front of our position, west of the Merderet River, was a marsh at least 1000 yards wide at its narrowest point. The road running west from the bridge could better be described as a causeway.

As I recall, the mission of the 508 was to occupy a position beyond this causeway. In addition to the men who assisted us in capturing the bridge at least a company of the 508 passed through our position and moved over the causeway to their objective. They were gone at least an hour when we saw several of them retreating back across the marsh. I remember that we helped several of them out of the river, which was quite shallow.

The machine gun fire from the Germans was very heavy by now. We didn’t return their fire as there were no visible targets and our ammunition supply was limited. They attacked with three tanks, which I was unable to identify for sure; but they appeared to be similar to the German Mark IV type, or maybe a little lighter. The tanks were firing on us with machine guns and cannon.

Just about a half-hour before this attack, a 57MM A. T. gun was assigned to Company "A". I located this gun about 150 yards from the bridge on the road where it curves to the right as you approach the bridge. Incidentally, this was my C.P. and later the Battalion C.P. This gave the gun excellent cover and a good field of fire.

On the bridge I had three bazooka teams. Two of them were from Company "A" and the third was either from "B" or "C" Company. The two Company "A" bazookas were dug in to the left and right of the bridge. Because of the fact that the road itself was the causeway type, they were as of necessity dug in below the level of the road, so that in order to fire, they had to get out of their foxholes. The third bazooka was over more to the south where better cover was available.

To continue, I had just completed my inspection of our defenses and was 40 to 50 yards from the bridge. Major Kellam and Captain Royaden were nearby. The first two tanks were within 15 Qr 20 yards of each other, the third was back about 50 yards. When the lead tank was about 40 or 50 yards away from the bridge, the two Company "A" bazooka teams got up just like clock work to the edge of the road. They were under the heaviest small arms fire from the other side of the causeway, and from the cannon and machine gun fire from the tanks. To this day, I’ll never be able to explain why all four of them were not killed. They fired and reloaded with the precision of well-oiled machinery. Watching them made it hard to believe that this was nothing but a routine drill. I don’t think that either crew wasted a shot. The first tank received several direct hits. The treads were knocked off, and within a matter of minutes it was on fire. Then they went to work on the second tank, and within about 30 seconds, it was on fire. They fired every rocket that they had and then jumped into their foxholes. The 57mm during this time was firing and eventually knocked out the last tank. The gun crew did an excellent job.

My two bazooka crews called for more ammunition. Major Kellam ran up toward the bridge with a bag of rockets followed by Captain Roysden. When they were within 15 or 20 yards of the bridge, the Germans opened up with mortar fire on the bridge. Major Kellam was killed and Captain Roysden was rendered unconscious from the concussion. He died later that day. Both of the bazookas were destroyed by the mortar fire. Lt. Weir (Reg. Hq. Co.) and I carried Captain Roysden back. I then took over command of the battalion, being the senior officer present.

Company "B" was put into reserve in the perimeter of Company "A", so that we had almost a 560 degree perimeter defense. The rest of the day we were under heavy mortar and machine gun fire. The mortar fire was very effective as against the two forward platoons because of tree bursts. It took very little imagination on the part of the Krauts to figure out just where we would be dug in. As I recall, there was less than a seventy-five yard frontage on either side of the bridge from where we could effectively defend, so they could throw their mortar fin in our general direction with good results. During the night, the fire let up, but they started early the next morning and kept it up. My third platoon took the worst beating, as they were in a heavier wooded area, (tree bursts).

The second tank attack came on the afternoon of the second day. I was over on the north side of the bridge with the first platoon. For about an hour before the attack, they increased their mortar fire to the extent that the third platoon was just about knocked out, but not quite. I was not aware of this at the time. In addition to already heavy casualties, Sgt. Monahan, the platoon Sgt. was fatally wounded.

I learned second hand that some other troops had retreated through the third platoon’s position, and then through my C.P. Rumors were around that we were going to give up the bridge. As a result of this, the 57MM A.T. crew took off. I didn’t have an Executive Officer at the time. Earlier that day, he (Tom Furey) was put in command of "C" Company. My First Sergeant was a jump casualty, so my Company Headquarters at the time was non-existent except for runners and radio operators. I can’t recall why, but our radios were not working. The only way that we could communicate was through runners.

The first platoon was under heavy fire also. The platoon leader, Lt. Oakley, who had been doing an excellent job, was fatally wounded, and Sgt. Ricci was leaving the junior squad leader, Sgt. Owens, in command. You will recall that we have had some communication about Sgt. Owens in the past as to his personal courage and the way he commanded the platoon at this most critical time. I recommended Sgt. Owens and my tour bazooka men for the D.S.C. The bazooka men were awarded the D.S.C., but Sgt. Owens was not. This is a story in itself.

The second attack was with two tanks and infantry. I was unable to estimate the size. The tanks stayed out of effective bazooka range. (We had one bazooka left.) Not hearing any fire from the 57MM, I went over to it and found it unmanned. I tried to fire it, but the crew had taken the firing mechanism. I organized five or six men behind the hedge on the southerly side of the road with Gammon grenades, and just about this time, two of the gun crew returned with the firing mechanism. They knocked out the two tanks. They were two youngsters not more than 17 or 18 years old, who returned on their own initiative. I recommended them for Silver Stars.

The rest of our stay at the bridge was uneventful, except for the continued mortar fire, and at the end, artillery fire which damaged the 57MM. Lt. Col. Mark Alexander took over command of the battalion later that day and continued to command it for most of the operation. Without exception, he was the finest battalion commander I ever served under. My second son, Mark Alexander Dolan, was named after him.

In conclusion, we held the bridge until relieved. In Co. "A" alone, in those days (three in all), we had seventeen known dead and about three times that number wounded. The rest of the battalion also had heavy casualties.

I have tried to give you an accurate picture of what happened however, after fifteen years, the foregoing may contain some minor inaccuracies I will be glad to give Mr. Ryan any additional information he may require. You may assure him that I will be happy to cooperate with him in every detail.

Very truly yours,


P.S. Since writing this Letter, I have read the account by David Howarth in the Saturday Evening Post, and I agree with you that it contains many inaccuracies. You will probably note that some of the events related tie in with what I have told you in this letter.

The most glaring inaccuracy is about the bridge being lost. For the record, this bridge was held by Company "A" from the time of its capture on "D" Day, until we were relieved.

The battle around La Fière Bridge
When the main Airborne force landed around midnight Robert Murphey’s job as a pathfinder was done. He had marked the way for the others and now he stayed behind on the dropzone and helped gathering the supply-bundles that had landed with the paratroopers. At first light, which must have been around eight or eight-thirty Murphey’s platoonleader 1st Lt. Lightchester (commander of the 1st Pathfinder Bn.) told him to go look for Lt. John J (Red Dog) Dolan. Lt. Dolan was the commander of A Co. at that time. This company’s goal was to take and hold the La Fière Bridge.

The La Fiere bridge is located just west of Ste. Mere d’Eglise, the primary target of the 82nd Airborne Division. The bridge runs across the small river the Merderet. Holding the bridge ment holding the western entrance of ste. Mere d’Eglise.

This city was so important because it was the crossing of the road from Carentan to Cherbourg and the road running from the west side of the peninsula to the beach that was code-named Utah Beach. If the Germans wanted to launch a full scale counterattack on the men coming in on the beaches from the sea, then they certainly had to bypass ste. Mere d’Eglise at La Fière Bridge. A large German counterattack in the first hours of the invasion could endanger the whole operation.

When Murphey arrived at the bridge, a defense-line had already been established. The paratroopers had pulled a German truck onto the bridge, to prevent any vehicles from passing. Anti-tank mines were laid in front of the truck to add to the roadblock.

The Germans had flooded the grasslands, prior to the invasion and the road alone was the sticking out above the water, because it was on a dike. Parachutes and supply-bundles could be see floating in the water and it was obvious that paratroopers had drowned in these fields on landing. The paratroopers had no choice then to dig in on the sides of the road, and even their they could dig very deep without getting water in their foxholes.

The artillery support that the defenders had was only one 57mm canon that had been flown in by glider. Murphey was not the only soldier joining the men from A Co. at that time. A group of soldiers from the 508th had been trapped in Coccagny during the night and had now gotten away and pulled back across the bridge.

Just as the men from the 508th had crossed the bridge, German 88th’ s were zeroing in on the bridge. These shells were particularly feared by the Americans because you couldn’t hear them coming in. Mortar shells and rockets also started to land within the American defense-line.

Three German tanks advanced towards the bridge as soon as the shelling had stopped. It were French Renault tanks which the Germans had captured during their drive into France in 1940. Although not very modern they still posed a serious threat for the weakly armed Airborne soldiers. The infantry followed the tanks in their advance, using the tanks as cover.

Two American bazooka-teams jumped up as soon as the tanks got within range. Each team had two men, one aimer and one loader. John D Boldison and Gordon Poya made the first team and Leonard Peterson, a Swedish airborne soldier that barely spoke English and Marcus Huyme made the second team. The aimers had to stand-up in their foxholes when they fired their bazooka’s. This ment that they had to expose themselves to all enemy fire. The didn’t pay attention to the German fire and placed several hits on the first two tanks, disabling both. The third tank also received some damage, but it managed to pull back.

A German officer climbed out of the first tank, in an attempt to run off to safety. There was not much feeling of compassion with the Germans among the Airborne soldiers and several men opened fire on the officer as soon as he had lifted himself from on the turret. The officer was killed at the spot.

The Infantry also remained at a distance once they had lost the support of their tanks. The battle was still far from being over. More critical hours were still ahead of A Co. of the 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment. Relief came in the night of June 8th. The 325th Glider Infantry Regiment of the same 82nd Airborne division took the positions at the bridge over from A Co. By that time more canons had been brought in for the paratroopers. For Robert Murphey the relief ment the end of his activities in Normandy. He had been hit by shrapnel in his back as a result from the continuous German shelling. He was taken back to England where he spend several weeks in a hospital.

© normandy44

To all fans, my book, "From Toccoa to the Eagle’s Nest: Discoveries in the Boosteps of the Band of Brothers" is now available on Amazon, Booksurge and Alibris Thanks Dalton

Image from page 87 of “Transactions of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers (1921)” (1921)
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Identifier: transactionsofso12soci_0
Title: Transactions of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers (1921)
Year: 1921 (1920s)
Authors: Society of Motion Picture Engineers
Subjects: motion pictures
Publisher: Society of Motion Picture Engineers
Contributing Library: Library of Congress, MBRS, Moving Image Section
Digitizing Sponsor: Library of Congress, Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division

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Text Appearing Before Image:
of f3.5 and is set in an accurate focusing mount. The new model of the professional Debrie Camera appears out-wardly much the same as formerly, but is now equipped with auto-matic shutter dissolve and a number of minor refinements in con-struction and design. The French Pathe Camera remains practically the same asbefore the war but the American Pathe which is the name frequentlyapplied to the Wilart Camera, has forged ahead so consistenly thatthe old simile no longer applies. Even the old familiar form of the studio model with overheadexterior magazines will soon become a thing of the past for the newmodel of the Wilart Camera which will appear shortly has lines dis-tinctively its own and the magazines will be placed inside the camera so that it can be taken from its case threaded ready for operation. Some of the advantages of the present Wilart model over thePathe are as follows: all metal construction, automatic shutter dis-solve, all metal film race, automatic opening light traps,

Text Appearing After Image:
Side elevation of Wilart Camera. view finder, improved focusing mechanism, ball bearings, Veedercounter, interior masks, etc. The Wilart Instrument Company is about to put on the marketa small motion picture camera using half width film for home usewhich they expect will have many commercial applications as well.This camera, called the Arcograph, looks like a miniature model ofthe Bell & Howell and is made with the same care and precision asa professional camera. The pictures made by this little instrumentare one-quarter the standard size and the projector of portable typewith a reel of film ready threaded is about the size of a lunch boxor a bag for a mans bathing suit. The Universal Camera sold by Burke & James now has anautomatic shutter dissolve built into the camera and a turret attach-ment for carrying extra lenses is now available. The American Motion Picture Machine Company of LongIsland City have recently brought out a turret for four lenses whichthey attach to the Pa

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Nice Fast Prototyping In China images

Nice Fast Prototyping In China images

Some cool rapid prototyping in china pictures:

rapid prototyping in china
Image by core.formula
Prefab china

A collection of speedy prototyping models (ZPrint) created in the Pratt Institute College of Architecture 2007 PreFab China Design and style Studio,Evan Douglis, Richard Sarrach, Che-Wei Wang, Eric Wong

Work created by: Sebastian Misiurek, Alex Drabyk, and Ivan Delgado

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All photos are scanned from the proof poloroid of a massive format 4×5 camera. The photographer is Kim Keever and will be component of the upcoming publication Autogenic Structures by Evan Douglis

rapid prototyping in china
Image by core.formula
A collection of rapid prototyping models (ZPrint) designed in the Pratt Institute School of Architecture 2007 PreFab China Style Studio:Evan Douglis, Richard Sarrach, Che-Wei Wang, Eric Wong

Perform by: Chris Egervary , Matt Macher , Ed Mulligan and Jun Pak
Please visit + for more